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DD for December

2020.11.26 02:28 ViewComprehensive334 DD for December

Small DD!
About Village Farms International, Inc.
TLDR: BUY! BUY! BUY!

Amongst the best value marijuana stock on the Nasdaq with some really good recent annoncement n a promising future.(https://www.investopedia.com/investing/top-marijuana-stocks-nasdaq/)
Newly the sole owner of Pure sunfarm, a cannabis compagny selling in Ontario n some other provinces.
Village Farms International, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, produces, markets, and distributes greenhouse-grown tomatoes, bell peppers, and cucumbers in North America. It operates through three segments: Produce Business, Energy Business, and Cannabis and Hemp Business. The company also owns and operates a 7.0 megawatt power plant that generates and sells electricity to British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority; and produces and supplies cannabis products. It markets and distributes its products under the Village Farms brand name to retail supermarkets and fresh food distribution companies, as well as products produced under exclusive arrangements with other greenhouse producers. The company was formerly known as Village Farms Canada Inc. and changed its name to Village Farms International, Inc. in December 2009. Village Farms International, Inc. was founded in 1989 and is headquartered in Delta, Canada
Village Farms is one of the largest and longest-operating greenhouse growers in North America, and is leveraging its decades of experience in large-scale, low-cost intensive agriculture and as a vertically integrated produce supplier to pursue high-value, high-growth plant-based Consumer Packaged Goods opportunities in cannabis and CBD in North America and selected markets internationally.

In Canada, British-Columbia-based Pure Sunfarms is one of the single largest cannabis operations in the world, the lowest-cost greenhouse producer, one of the best-selling brands, and has generated profitability for seven consecutive quarters.

In the U.S., subject to compliance with all applicable U.S. federal and state laws, Village Farms is pursuing a strategy to become a leading developer and supplier of branded and white-labeled CBD products targeting “big box” and other major retailers and consumer packaged goods companies, and with one the largest greenhouse operations in country, is well positioned for the potential federal legalization of high-THC cannabis.

Internationally, Village Farms is strategically targeting selected, nascent, legal cannabis and CBD opportunities with significant long-term potential, with an initial focus on the Asia-Pacific region through its investment in Australia-based Altum International.
Village Farms International, Inc. (“Village Farms” or the “Company”) (NASDAQ: VFF) (TSX: VFF) today announced two positive developments with respect to its wholly owned Canadian cannabis subsidiary, Pure Sunfarms.

Pure Sunfarms Receives Cannabis Research License for On-Site Sensory Evaluation from Health Canada

Pure Sunfarms has received from Health Canada its Cannabis Research License to conduct human administration trials for sensory evaluation of cannabis, enabling it to engage in on-site assessments of the taste, sight, smell or touch of its products at its Delta 3 cannabis facility in Delta, British Columbia.

“This license provides us with significant new opportunities in the formulation and refinement of our products, and underscores our commitment to innovation and the advancement of the Canadian cannabis consumer experience,” said Mandesh Dosanjh, President and Chief Executive Officer, Pure Sunfarms. “We look forward to leveraging this new capability to continue to extend Pure Sunfarms’ product leadership and further strengthen what is already one of Canada’s best-selling cannabis brands.”

Pure Sunfarms Brand Debuts Internationally in Hong Kong

Pure Sunfarms will be featured as part of a limited-edition Lane Crawford x Found CBD-infused gift set to be sold in the luxury department store’s holiday pop-up shops in Hong Kong this holiday season. The luxury gift sets will feature Pure Sunfarms branded CBD gummies created specifically for the Hong Kong consumer, among other CBD-inspired items such as chocolates, bath salts, and tea bags. The co-branded Lane Crawford and Found holiday pop-up shops aim to educate consumers and elevate their awareness of CBD.

The inclusion of Pure Sunfarms-branded CBD products was facilitated through a partnership between Altum International Limited’s (“Altum”) Found, Asia-Pacific’s first CBD retail platform and cafe, and Lane Crawford, an iconic luxury department store in Greater China. In August 2020, Village Farms acquired 6.6% of Australia-based Altum, one of the Asia-Pacific’s leading cannabinoid platforms.

“We’re so pleased for the Pure Sunfarms’ brand to make its debut internationally, alongside such prestigious and progressive partners as Altum and Lane Crawford,” said Mr. Dosanjh. “This is just the beginning of what’s to come for Pure Sunfarms as we look to share our love of plants and B.C.-grown cannabis products with the global cannabis market.”

“We are particularly excited to be able to present in Asia-Pacific for the first time, Pure Sunfarms, Canada’s market-leading cannabis brand,” Fiachra Mullen, Chief Marketing Officer for Altum International. “We believe that the leading cannabis brands in the Canadian market will hold a special place in the Hong Kong consumer’s heart. We are incredibly proud to have their trust in helping them access the Asia-Pacific markets for the first time through the most progressive cannabinoid jurisdiction in the region - Hong Kong.”

About Altum International

Altum International is a cannabinoid company born from its founders’ desire to bring the life-changing benefits of cannabis back to the Asia-Pacific. Through its Hong Kong headquarters, Altum is disrupting the status quo of decades past by importing, distributing and marketing a curated range of high-quality cannabinoid products across the region in a compliant and cost-effective manner.

In early 2020, Altum launched a line of consumer-friendly CBD products (Felix & Co), as well as plug-and-play CBD inputs for business operators (LIFE CBD) in the Hong Kong market. Following this, Altum launched Found, Asia-Pacific’s first CBD retail platform and cafe - designed to educate consumers and elevate category awareness. The August 2020 completion of a strategic investment from Village Farms has further fueled Altum’s growth aspirations for 2021 and beyond.
(https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/village-farms-internationals-pure-sunfarms-receives-cannabis-research-license-for-on-site-sensory-evaluation-from-health-canada--pure-sunfarms-brand-debuts-internationally-301178816.html)

As per the supply agreement, Pure Sunfarms, a wholly owned Canadian cannabis subsidiary of Village Farms International (NASDAQ:VFF) to supply a range of its branded, high quality, B.C.-grown cannabis products to the customers of Medical Cannabis by Shoppers Inc., a subsidiary of Shoppers Drug Mart (over 1300 locations!
stores.shoppersdrugmart.ca/en/).
Pure Sunfarms expects selected dried flower products to be available for sale on the Medical Cannabis by Shoppers ecommerce portal nationally as early as next month and selected pre-roll, bottled oil and vape products to be available in early 2021.
Pure Sunfarms' 28-gram (1-ounce) package offering will be the first large-format cannabis offering listed by Medical Cannabis by Shoppers.
(Source is the website that Reddit doesn't seems to like(copy the link n remove the space) : see kingalpha.com/news/3639363-village-farms-subsidiary-inks-supply-agreement-medical-cannabis-shoppers)
The analyst said on a revenue basis, VFF’s recent run-up has corrected the stock’s discount “somewhat” but not enough to entirely eliminate the asymmetry, where he sees VFF to be currently trading at 5.9x 2021 and 3.4x 2022 EV/Revenue, which would represent 20 and 34 per cent discount to its peer group.

With the new update, Sarugaser has reiterated his “Strong Buy 1” rating with a target price of US$20.00, which at press time represented a projected 12-month return of 113 per cent.

“Should the stock show any weakness from profit-taking [on Tuesday] (although pre-market trading implies a strong open), we would continue to see this as a very good entry point into what is, in our view, Canada’s premier cannabis operator (and U.S. dark horse),” Sarugaser wrote.

Vancouver-based Village Farms has more than nine million sq ft of greenhouse in North America and is comprised of three businesses: production and distribution of produce in the US, Canada and through partner growers in Mexico, production and distribution of cannabis products in Canada via Pure Sunfarms and production and distribution of hemp and hemp-derived CBD in the US.

Pure Sunfarms began as a joint venture with Emerald Health at a 50/50 split. Village Farms has progressively bought out Emerald Health since then, completing the move with an announcement on November 2 that it had acquired the remaining shares.

“The acquisition of the entirety of Pure Sunfarms is a defining moment for Village Farms, furthering our transformation to a vertically integrated, plant-based consumer packaged goods company,” said Village Farms CEO Michael DeGiglio in a press release. “It allows us to fully leverage the invaluable cannabis expertise Village Farms has gained in combination with the organizational strength underlying the Village Farms produce business to pursue high-growth opportunities in emerging legal cannabis and CBD markets in the United States and targeted markets internationally.”

On Monday, Village Farms announced a Health Canada research license for PSF to conduct on-site human administration trials for sensory evaluation of cannabis, which gives the company “significant new opportunities in the formulation and refinement of our products and underscores our commitment to innovation and the advancement of the Canadian cannabis consumer experience,” said Mandesh Dosanjh, President and CEO of Pure Sunfarms in a press release.

In the same release, VFF announced that PSF-branded CBD products will make their international debut in Hong Kong over the holiday season through a partnership with Altum International, an Asia-Pacific CBD retail platform and café and Chinese luxury department store Lane Crawford.
(https://www.cantechletter.com/2020/11/why-is-village-farms-stock-soaring-raymond-james-explains/)



Earning call transcript
"And I will note that only a small percentage, less than 5%, of Q3 revenue was generated by the launch of our 2.0 products, which was very late in the quarter. That drove a sequential quarterly increase in net income of 200% to $3.2 million. The third takeaway from the quarter is that the value of managing our business with prudence and discipline. From day one we have built and guarded Pure Sunfarms' profitability and return on invested capital. [...] We are encouraged by this activity, as it could mean better supply demand dynamics going forward. We believe this cost quality advantage, combined with our long-term capacity, will be a significant competitive advantage for the foreseeable future. And we will continue to believe that we could supply as much as 30% to 35% of the total Canadian cannabis flower market would B.C.-grown product, in addition to being a leading brand in excess of 20% of the retail channel. I do want to remind everyone that with the acquisition of the entirety of Pure Sunfarms, our Village Farms is now free to use our 2.6 million-square-foot Delta 1 facility for cannabis, production anytime we deem that it makes sense to proceed.[...]y. Internationally, we have invested in strategic partnerships like in Asia Pacific, company Altum, which is making steady progress on the execution of its strategy, initially focused on the Hong Kong market. So, turning now to our produce business for a moment. As I noted in the onset, Village Farms has had another good quarter.

The continuing strong price performance with tomatoes drove higher sales, and our continued progress in transition and growing capacity displayed through cannabis to our partner growers, as well as our continued focus on cost management contributed to a $4.2 million EBITDA turnaround into a positive $2.2 million. While these numbers are important in and of themselves, as you have heard me say many times, what is also critical, important is the breadth and depth of the strength of the organization to the lives of produce business. It is the engine that is powering our outsize growth opportunities in cannabis and related opportunities, both domestically and internationally. I'd like to turn the call over to Steve, who'll talk through our financial results. [...]Our produce business. Produce sales of $43 million for the quarter increased over 12% versus Q3, 2019 on the back of our average selling price of tomatoes increasing 30% year on year on lower tomato volumes, as we had no production from our Delta 2 facility in 2020, as is now being converted to cannabis production, as Mike mentioned.

The increase in produce selling prices essentially rolls directly into our gross margin, as there is no impact on our cost of sales. As such, we saw a year-on-year improvement in our Q3 gross margin of $6.2 million to $5.6 million from a loss in the prior third quarter of 2019, of $600,000. Our produce business had a 13% gross margin for the quarter. The incremental increase in our gross margin was driven by the higher selling price and lower tomato volumes, again due to the diversion of the Delta 2 facility.

Produce EBITDA increased by $4.2 million year on year to $2.2 million on the back of the improvement in our produce gross margin, which was offset by a lower year-on-year add-back depreciation since the Delta 2 facility was not in production, and a higher year-on-year SG&A in Q3, 2020 versus Q3, 2019 of $1.2 million, which is primarily related to substantive expenses involved with the acquisition of the financing of the remaining Pure Sunfarms shares. I should note that these incremental SG&A expenses are not truly related to the produce business, but are more corporate in nature. Supply shortages due to the increase in grocery store traffic certainly helped to produce pricing in the late spring and throughout the summer of 2020. I'd like to extend our sincere thanks to all the Village Farms employees who have continued to work all out on growing, distributing, and supporting our Village Farms produce brands, by getting our fresh produce on the shelves, our strategic retail partners in both the U.S.

and Canada. [...] The late-quarter launch of Pure Sunfarms 2.0 products contributed 4.5% of sales this quarter, and wholesale sales made up the balance of 47% of our sales. With the retail channel totaling 53% of sales Pure Sunfarms quarter-on-quarter growth and retail sales of 30% was driven by 166% increase in its small format SKUs, and a 30% increase in pre-rolls, which were offset by a 43% decrease in Pure Sunfarms retail large-format sales. The large-format sales in this quarter were as expected ongoing replenishment sales as compared to the second quarter, which were driven by higher launch-related sales. Our quarter-on-quarter average selling price did result in a 13.3% increase, which was driven by the increase in the ratio of our small format sales versus our large format sales, which enhances our margins, as well as an increase in the blended net wholesale pricing for the third quarter versus the second quarter, the wholesale pricing were driven by spot market dynamics.

We mentioned sequential sales growth looking ahead to Q4. While we continue to experiencing continuing month-and-month, year-on-year growth in our retail and wholesale businesses, I want to remind investors that Q4, 2019 was marked by the pullback of retail buying by prevention buyers who are managing the conversion to Cannabis 2.0 and their year-over-year inventory. To date, we have not seen any indication of this reoccurring, while Pure Sunfarms and our competitors still operate in a relatively new distribution system. And there remain many external economic factors, not to mention the pandemic that could slow our strong momentum.[...]Gross margin for the quarter was 34.6% versus 33.4% in Q2, versus 68.6% in Q3 of 2019, which had a totally different demand dynamic. This quarter's cost of sales includes an inventory writedown of CAD1.4 million, $1 million for the distillate inventory purchased earlier for which the market value has dropped since our purchase. Without the write down, Pure Sunfarms adjusted gross margin was 40.7%, which is a true reflection of the actual gross margins achieved against this quarter. The remaining distillate inventory has been assessed versus the market value, and there's no need for any further distillates write down.

The distillate will be used in Cannabis 2.0 products in Q4 and early 2021. We received finally of the Pure Sunfarms extraction license from Health Canada in September, and will enhance our gross margin in Cannabis 2.0 products. The vapes in the market today were manufactured by third party extractor, as such the margin on these SKUs was lower than on our flower products in the third quarter. We expect our Cannabis 2.0 products to have a higher volume as we manufacture our own vape pens and other Cannabis 2.0 products in the coming quarters.

It was important for Pure Sunfarms to launch these vapes and oil in advance to obtain extraction license due to the ongoing success of its flower plant.[...]SG&A expenses for the quarter for Pure Sunfarms decreased approximately 13% year over year,[...]As you can see from our Q3 gross margin percentage of 40.7% without the distillate inventory writedown, as compared to our Q2 gross margin of 33.4%, we continue our strong financial performance, consistent with the virtuous circle that Mike spoke of earlier. It is simply not in our commercial interests to be telling our customers our cost of production on margins. We have demonstrated a low-cost production and brand quality.[...]The Village Farms and Pure Sunfarms balance sheets continue to be on solid ground to support our ongoing businesses in the term gross objectives. Both entities have borrowing capacity on their existing bank loans. As we decided on September 30, 2020, for the first time my tenure at Village Farms, we had a net cash position of $22 million.

Of course, we just paid CAD60 million or $40 million to complete the acquisition of Pure Sunfarms on November 2, as well as issued a CAD19.9 million note or balance of $15 million due on May 2, 2021 to complete the acquisition. So, we're back into our normal net debt position as of today, but we are on firm financial ground with our ongoing positive cash flow from operations in both produce and cannabis. Speaking of, as I mentioned earlier, our pro forma, as we mentioned our closing press release earlier this month, Pure Sunfarms have been fully consolidated in Village Farms results beginning on November 2.[...]This momentum combined with an unmatched North American assets totaling over 10.5 million square feet, more than half of which is in the United States, and which no other cannabis company in the United States or Canada has, is why we continue to be so confident in our prospects for low and high THC cannabis markets in the U.S. and internationally. We have the considerable benefit of being able to pursue these opportunities funded by our produce business, which again is performing quite well.f you remember last year,[...]-we didn't have our sales license, so basically almost into the fourth quarter of last year. So, it's been one year. So, we can't really look at how we performed last year.

[S]aid in his comments, it was a different market last year, and we were selling solely 100% wholesale from the first, second, third quarter. So, for us, getting some historical data going forward is what we need. The second quarter of this year and to an extent the third was really impacted by COVID, especially the second quarter [...]Well, there is progress. I mean, we're still, you know, eyeballing Quebec. The team's doing a lot there. It's not an easy penetration, but we feel confident that slowly we'll make an entree into that, and that's clearly at the top of the pinnacle right now is Quebec.

But, you know, I think what's more interesting for us is finally the traction that Ontario and British Columbia showing in opening stores. I mean, Ontario's talking about, you know, in the realm of 40-50, 30 to 50, 30 to 60, stores promoting on the month, looking at 500 stores by April, doubling that to a thousand by next September, that is very, very exciting for us. We've had conversations on greater capacity. And I think British Columbia is moving in that -- not as aggressively.
[...]
maybe if you can just sort of elaborate more generally, given the -- you know, the recent changes in the U.S. at the federal level. How you see things playing out? And how those farms would be able to compete generally, relative to the MSOs which, you know, are quite in favor at the moment?
[...]

We believe that interstate commerce will happen.

And I think that's one area that that's where we shine the best. You just can't have five, seven, eight production facilities in a given state, indoor five, six, seven growers or one grower going around if you're going to really try to have incredible strains and consistency. So, one example with MSOs is, as successful as they are, and they will be more successful, especially the national ones, big-market cap see pockets no doubt, but they're going to have to find how they can be cost effective. Because in the end, like we've proven in Canada, things will get competitive.

And even if, in the end, there is a migration with technology, less in flower to other deliverables, I think we could play our part. From a Texas perspective, if Texas -- yeah, there's a lot of bills out there. We don't know, unfortunately, Texas meets every two years. So, we have this one window between January and May, whether it's a medicinal play there, I think first rather than RAC or nothing happens, and it's two years out.

Once we launch in Texas, we will be sort of first in when assets ready to go. We already have our conversion plans. We're ready to go in Texas. And that's the size same population nearly as Canada and the way Texas is going to probably be very close the next few years.

So that in itself is like the Republic of Texas or a country, but that doesn't mean we won't work nationally. And we're prepared to look at, if we have to do acquisitions or strategic partnerships and other locations where we can bring our strengths to the table. I think there's a lot of opportunity there. We're pretty well-known.

As you know, Village Farms is, in principle, a U.S. company. That's where we are. So, it's like coming home, and we're excited about on the array of possibilities for us." (https://www.fool.com/earnings/call-transcripts/2020/11/14/village-farms-international-inc-vff-q3-2020-earnin/)
Institutional Ownership18.53%
Income statement + blance sheet https://www.barrons.com/quote/stock/us/xnas/vff/financials
Price target Low 10.00, median 13.15, High 26.59 (from Barron n MarketWatch)

Disclaimer I've entered in it with an average buying price of 6.19US n I will be buying more.
submitted by ViewComprehensive334 to options [link] [comments]


2020.11.23 01:34 DarthEquus Circumcision: The Uniquely American Medical Enigma Edward Wallerstein

The continuing practice of routine neonatal nonreligious circumcision represents an enigma, particularly in the United States. About 80 percent of the world's population do not practice circumcision, nor have they ever done so. Among the non-circumcising nations are Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Scandinavia, the U.S.S.R., China, and Japan. People employing circumcision do so either for "health" reasons or as a religious ritual practiced by Muslims, Jews, most black Africans, non-white Australians, and others.
The origin of the ritual practice is unknown. There is evidence of its performance in Israel in Neolithic times (with flint knives) at least 6000 years ago.38 Jews accept the Old Testament origin as a covenant between God and Abraham,18 although it is generally agreed that the practice of circumcision in Egypt predated the Abrahamic Covenant by centuries.55 Ritual Circumcision is not germane to this discussion except insofar as the surgical ritual impinges upon accepted medical practice.65
So called "health" circumcision originated in the nineteenth century, when most diseases were of unknown etiology. Within the miasma of myth and ignorance, a theory emerged that masturbation caused many and varied ills. It seemed logical to some physicians to perform genital surgery on both sexes to stop masturbation; the major technique applied to males was circumcision. This was especially true in the English-speaking countries because it accorded with the mid-Victorian attitude toward sex as sinful and debilitating.64
The most prolific enumerator of the health benefits of circumcision was Dr. P. C. Remondino.50 In 1891 this physician claimed that the surgery prevented or cured about a hundred ailments, including alcoholism, epilepsy, asthma, enuresis, hernia, gout, rectal prolapse, rheumatism, kidney disease, and so forth. Such ludicrous claims are still disseminated and possibly believed. The book was reprinted in 1974, without change, and the Circulating Branch Catalogue of the New York Public Library (1983) listed the Remondino book, showing a publication date of 1974. One physician, writing in Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality (1974), called the book "pertinent and carefully thought out."63
Remondino was not the only one expounding such views. In 1911, Dr. Joseph Preuss, in a monumental tome, Biblical-Talmudic Medicine, claimed that Jewish ritual circumcision endowed health benefits; his sole source was Remondino46 Some espoused more extreme views; in 1910 an article in J.A.M.A. described a new circumcision clamp. The authoinventor claimed that with this device, the operation was so simple that men and women could now circumcise themselves.30
In the 75-year period (1875 to 1950) there was virtually no opposition to routine circumcision in the United States. Instead there were many articles in medical journal and textbooks extolling the practice; the issue was ignored in the popular press. Yet in the more than a century of acceptance of routine circumcision in the English-speaking countries, from 1870 to the present, no other country adopted newborn circumcision.
The first serious questioning of the practice did not occur until late 1949 (in England with the publication of Gairdner's "The Fate of the Foreskin."17 which began to affect the practice of circumcision by the British. In 1963, an editorial in J.A.M.A. called the attitude of the medical profession paradoxical and confused, and admitted that the facts about circumcision were still unknown.14 This was followed by several critiques of circumcision such as those by Morgan (1965 and 1967)38 and Preston (1970).45 In 1968 Øster confirmed Gairdner's findings,42 as did Reichelderfer and Fraga,49 who presented a comprehensive study of circumcision. Yet some physicians continued to support circumcision for surprising reasons. For example, Dr. Robert P. Boland, writing in The New England Journal of Medicine in 1969, compared circumcision with tonsillectomy, calling both procedures "ritualistic," and "widely performed on a non-scientific basis." He opposed routine tonsillectomy but concluded vis-a-vis circumcision: "Little serious objection can actually be raised against circumcision since its adverse effects seem miniscule."5
Table 1. Estimated Newborn Nonreligious Circumcision Rates in English-Speaking Countries.
Great Britain New Zeland Australia Canada America
1 10 30 30 80
In the 1970's, a change seemed in the offing. In 1971 and 1975, the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision declared: "...there are no valid medical indications for circumcision in the neonatal period."2 In 1978, the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics was endorsed by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.64 In 1983 both groups jointly reaffirmed their positions.1 The "firm" firm declarations should have caused a marked drop in the United States circumcision rate. They did not.
To explore the circumcision rate in the United States, it is essential to compare the American experience with the other English-speaking countries. Anticircumcision articles appeared in the medical press in all of these countries. Gairdner17 and Øster42 were published in journals in England; Morgan (1967) was published in Australia.39 In 1971, the Australia Paediatric Association recommended: "Male infants should not as a routine be circumcised."13 In 1975, the Canadian Paediatric Society stated, ". . .there is no medical indication for circumcision in the neonatal period."57
Although there is no precise data on circumcision from any country,approximated rates for the English-speaking countries reveal that in Great Britain, the practice has virtually been abandoned; New Zealand follows closely behind. (In a 1982 visit, a number of physicians were apologetic for the "inordinately high" rate of 10 percent. Several physicians stated categorically that they refused to perform routine circumcisions.) The rates in Canada and Australia appear to be declining at about 10 percentage points per decade. The United States stands alone as the only country in the world in which the majority of newborn males are circumcised, purportedly for health reasons.
Before addressing the phenomenon of circumcision in the United States let us examine the Canadian and Australian data. In Canada (Table 2), there are considerable rate differences among the provinces but the overall rate is clearly declining, and in Quebec the practice has been virtually been discontinued. In Australia (Table 3), unlike Canada, the rates by states are relatively uniform, but clearly declining. In 1978, the Australia government recommended that payments for circumcision be reduced or eliminated.71 (In a visit to Australia in 1982, I was told that a national campaign was planned to reduce unnecessary surgery; circumcision was high on the list.)
Table 2. Hospital Inpatient Male Newborn Circumcision in Canada by Province (data from British Columbia and Newfoundland not reported)* 1970 to 1978 by Rank Order of Percentage change
1970 1979 Change (% rounded)
Total 64,015 44,853 -30
Quebec 12,995 3,077 -76
Nova Scotia 2,477 1,004 -60
New Brunswick 1,543 673 -43
Alberta 10,857 9,608 -12
Manitoba 5,006 4,424 -11
Ontario 24,476 26,283 +4
Saskatchewan 3,276 3,655 +12
Table 3 Estimated Neonatal Circumcision Rate in Australia by State, 1973-74 to 1979-80(%)* Adapted from Wirth, J.L.: Current circumcision practices in Australia. Med. J. Aust., 1:179, 1982.
1973-74 1979-80 % Decrease
Total 49 39 10
New South Wales 52 42 10
Victoria 39 28 11
Queensland 62 51 11
South Australia 47 41 6
Western Australia 51 38 13
Tasmania 68 43 25
Although nationwide data on circumcision for Canada and Australia are admittedly imperfect, precise data for the United States are virtually non-existent. The H.E.W. Hospital Records Study excludes neonates.70 The Cycle III Health Examination Survey, conducted from 1963 to 1965 among youths aged 12 to 17, reflected the practice of circumcision in the early 1950's.70 The total circumcision rate was 765 (whites, 80 percent; blacks, 45 percent); regional differences were also noted.
In 1980 Wallerstein provided a crude compendium of circumcision rates reported in the literature.64 This was updated in 1981 by King and Roebuck.29 Since these compendia, other reports from individual hospitals have been noted in the literature (Table 4).25 Of the five hospitals reporting, the lowest rate was 80.7 percent; the other rates ranged from 90 to 98 percent. These data are static, that is, reported within a fixed period, making it impossible to discern a trend. Several hospitals reported longitudinal changes. One New York City maternity center stated that "in the past" the rate was 90 percent; in 1980 it was 60 percent.35 Other reports are more precise, indicating changes from 1978 to 1980, and 1975 to 1979 (Table 4, last two hospitals).3 The year-to-year changes were negligible; clearly there was no precipitous decline. This stability of rate was confirmed by the Commission on Professional and Hospital Activities, which publishes annual data based on projections from atypically large hospitals.72 They show a 1970 rate of 88 percent and a 1980 rate of 86 percent. The mean rates from 1970 to 1975 and from 1976 to 1980 are identical (86 percent).54
Table 4. Circumcision Rates, Selected Hospitals
References: 25, 29, 27, 34, 3, 41 respectively
Hospital Years Rates(%)
New Britain General Hospital, Connecticut 1976-77 80.7
Southern Illinois Hospital 1979 95
John Hopkins Hospital 1980 97.6
St. Agnes Hospital, Baltimore 1981 96-98
Hershey. Pennsylvania Hospital 1983 90-96
George Washington University Medical Hospital 1979 79
1979 77
1980 81
Largest Hospital in Salt Lake County, Utah 1975 92
1976 93
1977 92
1978 92
1979 93
In 1982 Slatkowski and King approached the question of circumcision rates specifically with respect to the pronouncements of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the practice of circumcision in Illinois.54 They obtained data from 18 Chicago-area hospitals; the rates ranged from 27 to 92 percent (mean 78 percent). Five of the hospitals reported rates from 80 to 88 percent; five from 90 to 92 percent; the rates ranged from 74 to 97 percent, with a single exception: one hospital reported a rate of 4.5 percent. Upon further query, that hospital reported a circumcision rate decline beginning after 1974-75.
These United States data reveal no significant national decline in the circumcision rate desperate the pronouncements of the American Academy of Pediatrics or the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. However there are instances of sharp declines in several hospitals. Dr. Joan Hodgman, director of the Newborn Division of the Los Angeles County University of Southern California Medical Center, reported in 1983 that their circumcision rate is zero. Similarly, J.H.T. Chang, pediatric surgeon at the Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, the largest in the city, stated in 1983 that circumcision is not performed even if the parents demand it.24
Why have most United States physicians persisted in the practice? One reason is that the medical and popular literature abounds in serious errors of scientific judgment, equivocation, and obfuscation. Space limitations permit a brief examination of four issues: pain, venereal disease, cancer, and hygiene.
PAIN
Pain of circumcision is not a debatable question; it is a fact.21 However, a perusal of writings in the popular press (1982 and 1983) reveals confusion. Proctor and Gamble, one of the nations largest advertisers, promotes Pampers to parents by offering the Expectant Parents Information Kit (1982), which contains the following statement: "You may be surprised to learn that circumcision will not be painful to your baby because, at this early stage of development, the penis does not yet have functioning nerve endings."15
A contrary view was found in American Baby (May 1983), in which parents were told that "Newborns who undergo circumcision experience a great deal of stress and pain . . ." Parents were advised that it was now possible to employ local anesthetics to alleviate such pain.36
Mother's Manual (1982) argues against local anesthesia because ". . . it swells the area to the extent of making an unsatisfactory circumcision too likely."7 Genesis, published by the American Society for Psychoprophylaxis in Obstetrics, carried an article in 1982 in which two writers who attended a Jewish ritual circumcision described the surgery as bloodless, painless and stressless. They suggested that non-Jewish parents explore the possibility of employing ritual circumcisors.11
Parents who read such an array of literature are bound to be bewildered.
VENEREAL DISEASE
Prior to the turn of the century, little was known about venereal disease, either causes or cures. Understandably, the false claim could be made with impunity that circumcision prevented sexually transmitted diseases.64 These claims persisted beyond the middle of the twentieth century: Urologist A. Ravich titled his 1973 book Preventing V.D. and Cancer by Circumcision.18
Within the past decade there has been virtually no statement that circumcision prevents syphilis or gonorrhea; the present day "whipping boy" is genital herpes. Even a cursory exploration of a link between circumcision and herpes reveals that such claims are without foundation; the presence or absence of the foreskin neither aids nor deters the transmission of herpes. A definitive statement regarding this claim was made in 1979 by Y.M. Felman, director of the New York City Bureau of Venereal Disease Control: ". . . I don't believe that circumcision is of any value in preventing genital herpes, as this disease is quite common in circumcised males and their female sex partners."16
Yet in 1981, Warner and Strashin wrote: "Herpes genitalis appears to be the only sexually transmitted disease associated with circumcision status."67 Strashin defended his statement the following year.68 If circumcision prevents herpes or deters its transmission, how can we explain the phenomenal rise in the incidence of this disease to epidemic proportions, particularly among the most sexually active males, ages 15 to 25, of whom perhaps 75 percent are circumcised? Nevertheless, the 1975 American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force reported: "Adequate studies to determine the relationship between circumcision and the incidence of venereal disease have not been performed." This statement is obvious outdated.
PENILE CANCER
Few diseases strike greater fear than cancer, and no site is more potentially alarming to males than the penis. It is not surprising, therefore that when newborn circumcision is presented as an absolute prophylaxis against penile carcinoma, it is a potent argument for circumcision. Wolbarst wrote in 1932: ". . . cancer of the penis does not occur in Jews circumcised in infancy. There is no case on record."73 Subsequent research indicate that there are such cases on record.4
The understatement of the incidence of penile cancer in Jews should be contrasted with the overstatement in regard to the uncircumcised people of India and China. In 1973, deKernion and colleagues wrote: ". . . the disease accounts for 12 percent of all malignancies among the Hindus of India."12 In 1977 Kaplan claimed, "In China, penile carcinoma accounts for 18 percent of all carcinomata."28 In a visit to the Peoples Republic of China (1976) and India (1982) the incidence of penile cancer was discussed with health officials. They stated that no nationwide health data was available; more specifically, no National Cancer Registries were maintained (much as they would like to do so). They remarked that no reputable scientist in their country would provide such data. Precise data on penile cancer are available from countries in which a National Cancer Registry is maintained. The United States does not maintain such a Registry, and so its data are imprecise. The data from Japan, Norway, and Sweden are compared with the United States' estimates (Table 5). The largest difference in incidence is between the United States and Sweden, three cases per million males; for death rates, the difference between the United States and Japan is one case per million males, small differences indeed. It is worthy of note that in countries in which a National Cancer Registry is maintained and precise incidence or death rates is known, routine circumcisions continues not to be practiced. There is no acceptance of the claimed epidemiologic relationship between circumcision and penile cancer.
Table 5. Penile Cancer: Comparison of Approximate Incidence and Death Rates per 100,000 Males for Selected Countries*
*Data from Cancer Deaths 1980 Ministry of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan for Japan. For other countries; Wallerstein, E.: Circumcision an American Health Fallacy. New York, Springer Publications. 1980.
Country Year Incidence Death Rate
America 1972 0.8/100,000 0.3
Japan 1980 N/A 0.2
Norway 1967 1.1 N/A
Sweden 1968 1 1 N/A
It could be argued that in Japan, Norway, Sweden, high standards of hygiene are maintained. The variable in penile cancer prophylaxis may be hygiene, not retention of foreskin. This is essentially the position taken by the 1975 American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force, which denied a relationship between circumcision and prostatic cancer and stated that "non-circumcision is not of primary etiological significance" in cervical cancer.2 In regard to penile cancer, they wrote: "There is evidence that carcinoma of the penis can be prevented by neonatal circumcision. There also is evidence that optimal hygiene confers as much or nearly as much protection" (emphasis added)2 In 1981, 6 years later, Grossman and Posner took a more forthright position. Writing in Obstetrics and Gynecology, they stated: "No one today seriously promotes circumcision as a prophylactic against cancer in any form. No significant correlation between cancer and circumcision has ever been proved."22
The claim that circumcision is related to penile cancer is based upon the "fact" that smegma is a carcinogen. Smegma in infancy consists solely of desquamated epithelial cells, and in adulthood additionally of the secretions of the Tyson's glands. Many attempts have been made to prove a simple cause and effect between smegma and cancer; all failed but one. In 1947 Plaut and Kohn-Speyer "demonstrated" that smegma was a carcinogen. Of the animals examined, 27 percent of those treated with smegma developed cancer whereas 15 percent of the animals treated with cerumen developed cancer.44 Is it now possible to claim that cerumen is also a carcinogen with only one half of the carcinogeneity of smegma? This study is deficient in conceptualization, methodology, execution, gathering of data, and analysis.44 Understandably, the study has largely been ignored; however, as recently as 1981 it was accepted in one medical journal article without question.23
Penile cancer scare techniques are still with us. In 1980, Kochen and McCurdy stated that ". . . uncircumcised men are uniquely at risk . . ." They "demonstrated" that the predicted lifetime risk among uncircumcised men was one in 600.31 They did not address why 599 out of 600 at risk" males will not contract penile cancer in their lifetime. More importantly, Kochen and McCurdy based their calculations on the 1968 Stern and Lachenbruch study of one cancer detection center in Los Angeles.59 Their 1968 data are obviously skewed in age, ethnicity, religion, social class, and so forth, and are admittedly non-random. Such inadequate local data should not be extrapolated to a national statistic.
The threat of penile cancer hangs over the discussion of circumcision like some mystical demon. It deserves to be exorcised, not circumcised.
PENILE HYGIENE
In several studies, mothers were asked why they agreed to their son's circumcision. The answer given most frequently was "hygiene."53 (In a 1981 United Nations study of female genital surgery in Africa, one reason given for such surgery was "hygiene."19 ) Why is male genital hygiene viewed with such alarm in the United States that prophylactic surgical intervention is necessary?
For over a century, and to this day, mothers have been warned that proper penile hygiene involves full retraction of the foreskin to clean the glans of smegma, and this procedure should start almost at day one. Such a task is virtually impossible, because in almost all infants the foreskin is attached firmly to the glans. Separation occurs normally within a few months or several years. Separation may be forced but this literally involves tearing the tissues apart, which is usually painful and may result in bleeding. No sane mother enjoys causing distress to her child. No wonder there is fear and reluctance about retraction of the foreskin. This has created a foreskin phobia. Forced retraction of the foreskin may lead to complications, and may well be the reason for so many postinfancy circumcisions (only in the United States).
The problem with this hygienic technique is that it is totally in error. Care of the foreskin is not exceedingly difficult; it is exceedingly simple: leave it alone. The foreskin in infancy should not be retracted. In 1977 Kaplan wrote, " . . . freeing 'adhesions is tantamount to cruel and unusual punishment and is unfounded physiologically or medically."28 Development of the foreskin and the inadvisability of forced retraction was noted by Gairdner (1949),17 Øster (1968),42 Reichelderfer and Fraga (1968),49 and others.
Many, if not most, American physicians are ignorant of proper care of the foreskin. This was demonstrated by Osborn and colleagues in 1981, who queried Utah pediatricians and found that 67 percent estimated that the foreskin should retract easily by one year.40 This is contrary to all findings of studies of the foreskin. Only 3 percent said the newborn foreskin should never be retracted. In interviewing a small sample of mothers of uncircumcised boys, Osborn and colleagues also found that retraction of the foreskin caused such anxiety that 40 percent of these mothers stated that they would have their next male infant circumcised.
The problem is not limited to Utah. In a study of physicians in the Chicago area, Patel and colleagues reported in 1982 that "only 49 percent of the physicians [in the total sample] were aware of the AAP's [American Academy of Pediatrics position."43 Among the pediatricians and obstetricians in the sample, 62 percent were aware of this position. The major reason given for recommending circumcision was "hygiene" (90 percent). In a 1982 study by Stein and colleagues conducted in San Diego, they noted, "Only 36 percent of the responding physicians were aware that the newborn's foreskin is characteristically not found retractable."58 When asked "if a nonretractable foreskin is an indication for circumcision," 47 percent of all respondents answered incorrectly. Such incorrect responses were mare likely to be given by those in family practice (50 percent), obstetrics (55 percent), and general practice (67 percent) than by those in pediatrics (13 percent). At the Spring 1983 meeting of the American Academy of Pediatrics in Philadelphia, an exhibit on circumcision was conducted. The most frequently asked question related to proper care of the foreskin.
If physicians are ill-informed about care of the foreskin, how can parents be well informed? There are thousands of books, pamphlets, and articles available to parents relating to child care. Almost none devotes attention to proper care of the foreskin. Discharging a circumcised child without informing the parents of proper wound care constituted negligence. Discharging an uncircumcised child without informing the parents of proper care of the foreskin is equally negligent. Osborn and colleagues reported that the only written information they could find on the subject was this statement in a 1978 book: " . . .retract the foreskin gently and return the foreskin to its normal position to prevent constriction and swelling."8 To begin to correct this lack of information, in 1982 Wallerstein wrote a pamphlet entitled "When Your Baby Boy is Not Circumcised."66 Boyce also addressed the subject in an article entitled "Care of the Foreskin (1983).6 The American Academy of Pediatrics has issued a pamphlet entitled "Care of the Uncircumised Penis" (1984).
The issue of hygiene is obfuscated by the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force Report in two ways. As noted earlier, the Report stated that to prevent penile cancer, "optimum hygiene was necessary. The reader, lay public or physician may ask: What constitutes "optimum hygiene? Can parents guarantee such optimum care? If not, isn't it better to play it safe and circumcise? The Report also cautions that retention of the foreskin requires "lifelong" hygiene. This statement is not incorrect; it is incomplete. All body parts require lifelong hygiene, body bathing, hair shampooing, oral hygiene, labial hygiene, and so forth. The discontinuance of any aspect of hygiene may well have deleterious effects. Why single out the foreskin?
The crux of the circumcision/hygiene rationale had its origin in the fear of the "effects" of masturbation; this may persist in attenuated form. Today, however, it is basically a lack of knowledge: the foreskin and glans in infancy are essentially fused, and should not be retracted forcibly, and smegma is not a carcinogen.
Another claimed hygienic benefit is that thousands of United States servicemen, particularly in the South Pacific required circumcision. Would it not be better to circumcise in infancy and thereby avoid the more troublesome operation in adulthood? However, Japanese soldiers were fighting in the identical environment, and the Japanese did not practice newborn circumcision. When Japanese health officials were visited by Wallerstein (1982), they stated that to the best of their knowledge, Japanese military surgeons did not find it necessary to circumcise after World War II. More to the point, in the event of thermonuclear war, the role of the foreskin will pale to insignificance.
Thus, much of the current circumcision misinformation, both lay and professional, is false and misleading. In 1971 and 1975, the American Academy of Pediatrics appeared to take definitive positions; actually they did not. The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on the Fetus and Newborn noted in 1971 that "there are no valid medical indications for circumcision in the neonatal period."2 in 1975, the American Academy of Pediatrics Ad Hoc Task Force on Circumcision reported that there was no basis for changing this statement and concluded, "There is no absolute medical indication for routine circumcision of the newborn."2
However, as previously noted, the use of the words "optimum" and "lifelong" with regard to to penile hygiene and the stated uncertainty of a possible link between circumcision and venereal disease represented equivocation. An additional equivocation is found in the 1975 Report: "A diagnosis of phimosis cannot be made with assurance in the newborn period because the cleavage plane between the glans and the deep preputial layer of the penis is not developed at birth. There is a real need for research which will improve diagnostic accuracy in this area."2
In 1983, this statement was challenged by Thompson, who chaired the ad hoc Committee. He wrote: "One major reason used to justify neonatal circumcision - correction or prevention of phimosis has been shown to be untenable by serial studies from birth to adulthood."62 Furthermore, overwhelming epidemiologic evidence from countries that never adopted circumcision or abandoned the practice obviates the need for further study.
Thompson also provided the setting for the equivocation and the absence of a more definitive position: "The ad hoc commmittee was sharply divided in its opinions, and the resulting statement was a compromise that stated that there was no absolute medical indication for routine circumcision of the newborn.' The words absolute and routine were meant to convey a different impression from the conclusion of the AAP Committee on the Fetus and Newborn, but this has no always been the interpretation of readers."62
If the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee was sharply divided and the report subject to misinterpretation, how can physicians and parents take an unequivocal position on circumcision? They cannot. And if the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics is equivocal, the position of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is even more so. When the American Academy of Pediatrics committees reported, the statements were published.56 The endorsements of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists were not published in their journal.64 Moreover, in 1978 Grimes raised an unanswered question: " . . . the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Inc., warns that 'physicians who assume responsibility for the health of male patients for operative or other care will not be regarded as specialists in obstetrics-gynecology . . .'"20 It is well known that obstetricians perform a large percentage of circumcisions.
The acceptance of circumcision was noted by Herrera is 1983, who reported on a nationwide survey of 400 pediatricians and obstetricians; 50 percent believed circumcision indicated in the newborn, 33 percent opposed, and 17 percent were undecided.26 As to advice to parents, there was acquiescence; 15 percent encouraged it, 19 percent discouraged it, and 66 percent remained neutral. "This is one reason why nearly every male neonate is circumcised," Herrera wrote.26
Ambivalence on the part of physicians about circumcision was illustrated in one study by a Canadian hospital in 1983 where there were two patients with a serious complication of circumcision, denuding of the penile shaft that required plastic surgery. A formal proposal to suspend neonatal circumcisions was made but rejected because of anticipated adverse community reaction. However, the circumcision rate in that hospital dropped from about 40 to 20 percent as a result of the mishaps.61
Judging from the record, American medical professionals are not truly opposed to circumcision; they perform about 1.25 million annually. Some continue to insist that there are health benefits. Some physicians place the responsibility on the parents. In 1983 Maisels and colleagues wrote, "If circumcision practices are ever to be changed, such changes will likely result from organized advocacy of lay groups . . . rather than from the efforts of the medical profession."34 However when physicians demonstrated that routine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were unwise, the rate dropped. No amount of parental pressure would cause an ethical physician to perform such an operation if it were unnecessary.
Some charge venality, possibly true for some physicians, but not for all, and impossible to document. Some of the highest circumcision rates are to be found in military hospitals, where the doctors are salaried. Contrast this with the abandonment of routine tonsillectomy; some physicians had reduced revenues, but no one clamored for the reinstatement of the procedure to refill the coffers. Venality may not be dismissed entirely; in private practice, circumcision results in a fee, and there is loss of time convincing parents not to have their sons circumcised.
Then there is the Jewish question. Some non-Jewish physicians may be hesitant to question routine "health" circumcision in the mistaken belief that this stance may offend Jews. However, according to Jewish theologians, the Jewish ritual has nothing to do with health.64 Obversely, occasional private comments suggest that Jews are responsible for nonreligious circumcision. This is a canard.
The "enigma" lies in the United States medical profession's apparent inability to come to grips with the simple fact that there are no demonstrable health benefits of circumcision, and there are risks. (Space limitations preclude delineation.) It should also be noted that the foreskin is useful erogenous, and protective tissue. Smegma, both clitoral and penile, is beneficial, not detrimental. Meatitis is not uncommon in circumcised males; rare in the uncircumcised. Moreover, the penis is the only organ subjected to routine prophylactic surgery.
One explanation for holding to outmoded views was provided by a medical professor who told his students, "It takes less than five minutes to print an article in a medical journal and 50 years to erase it." In 1979 Colletti approximated this estimate. He noted that efforts to reverse current circumcision practice "will need at least a generation of widespread education, coaxing, and encouragement to succeed."10 Warner and Strashin are even more pessimistic, based upon an erroneous premise: "As for the likelihood of a successful hygiene education program we can only point to our own profession's impotence in combating smoking and obesity."68 This approach overlooks the fact that hundreds of millions of dollars are expended annually to promote smoking and food intake. No such effort on behalf of circumcision exists.
As scientific evidence mounted to dispute each of Remondino's exaggerated claims, physicians clutched at straws to retain at least one "health" benefit. Now that all such claims have been refuted, circumcision today has become cultural surgery, not very different from ear- and nose-piercing and tattooing. The extreme to which such cultural surgery is carried may be found in the 1983 warning given by the British Social Service Secretary to Harley Street surgeons who charged up to $1500 for a clitoridectomy performed on young girls from Africa, where such surgery is traditional.69 More serious examples were found in France in 1982.52
The medical profession was successful in eliminating routine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is precisely what is needed for routine circumcision. It is necessary to overcome ignorance and the emotional superstructure surrounding the penis, not very different from ancient (and present phallic worship. It is necessary to accept scientific facts; it is necessary to discard myths about circumcision: the foreskin causes premature ejaculation, it keeps the penis from growing, some disaster will befall the uncircumcised child, the uncovered glans is more esthetically pleasing (that is the foreskin is ugly). The special myth that the boy's penis must be identical to his father's ignores the historic truth that no objection was raised, and no problem arose when circumcising millions of boys whose fathers were uncircumcised.
To resolve the problem, the positions of the American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists should become definitive statements that circumcision is unnecessary surgery, not to be undertaken except in rare medical circumstances. Endorsements of this position should be obtained from all relevant medical groups. This information should be disseminated to the entire medical profession, to all hospitals, nurses and nursing associations, childbirth educators, and most certainly to parents via the popular press. Meetings professional and lay persons should be called on local, state and national levels to discuss circumcision. With such an approach, routine newborn nonreligious circumcision will soon pass from the scene to join blood-letting and cupping in medical history.
As Prucha observed in 1980, "The history of these few millimeters of skin is utterly fascinating."47
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2020.11.17 23:19 alaskansteve Hell To Be Unleashed

Dems are DOOMED. Every single day makes it more and more clear. All hell is about to be unleashed, and we are going to have front row seats to one of the greatest moments in all of human history. I hope you fully understand the magnitude of this moment and cherish it while we can.
This is more than just this US election. This is going to affect all future elections, destroy a political party, destroy digital and traditional media and secure elections around the world. There is a TON to cover so this will be choppy as I invariably will have to go back and insert things.
Let's start with history. Smartmatic was created with the express purpose of frauding elections. CIA ops are admitting this. It has been involved in 92 world wide elections and allowed Chavez to maintain power so we could all witness what socialism does to a once prosperous country which is now a 3rd world s'hole. Sidney Powell is amazing. I am not sure when she has time to investigate given her time on air, but I am going to let you read her own words because what she is saying is absolutely DEVASTATING!
Let's highlight a few things. She said they have evidence of massive voter fraud writ large in at LEAST 29 states which is WAY more than we have been led to believe they were looking into at this point. She said they have proof the machines were connected to the internet, and collected ALL data from those transactions. She doesn't mess around. If she says it, it is GOSPEL. Nothing you read from any source has as much gravitas as what she is saying, NOTHING.
So if you are one of the soft hearted easily swayed emotional types, then all I can say is listen to what I have been telling you. Listen to her, Lin Wood, Trump and Giuliani.
More from Powell in a sec, but Lin Wood specifically addressed the sad sack fatalists saying the Trump team has yet to even engage the enemy, have faith and be patient. Exactly. Is anyone here dumb enough to think that collecting a tsunami of voter fraud coming in PER DAY is a quick and easy task?
How long does it take to go through the servers? Go through NSA data? Verify 11,000 affidavits? Look at legalities, put together documents, etc. Frankly, it sounds like a Herculean task, and their job is to win this and destroy the dems, not baby sit a bunch of nervous adults with shaky faith easily manipulated by external sources. Not only that, the deep state is making counter maneuvers they have to deal with, and I am sure there are plea deals etc.
We are being told that Smartmatic was run by Haspel and the CIA, a rogue treasonous intel agency. Sidney Powell read an affidavit from a high ranking military source in which the person testifies that Smartmatic was designed to change votes live without being detected. They can change EVERY vote in the system. How do they counter this? There is literally NO defense. Their ONLY hope is that the corrupt courts deny or toss out everything which will be impossible given the magnitude of what is coming.
She put Pedo Traitor Benedict Roberts on notice that if the Supreme Court doesn't take the case he will be impeached. Once the breadth of fraud is exposed for the country to see, the court will be handcuffed. There is no way in hell they can just dismiss or overlook it. Their lives will literally be in jeopardy, and rightly so. I am sure that whatever the Fuhrer used to blackmail Pedo Benedict Roberts will be used this time. I still envision him going to Gitmo before it's all over.
Lin Wood publicly acknowledged working with CodeMonkey who keeps highlighting new sources daily. Think about this. How many states have been officially certified? ZERO! YOU have as many electoral victories as Pedo Joe right now. In fact, I am going to refer to myself as Dr. President elect as I have an equal claim to office as Pedo Joe does right now. But more importantly why haven't ANY states been certified? Why not TN, KY, NY? States which supposedly aren't contested. Sidney Powell answered why. She said anyone "stupid enough" to certify their election now will be held fully accountable.
First of all, I LOVE IT. Second of all, that has serious implications because of what Trump did in 2018. The nat'l emergency declared by Trump was a stroke of genius. Did the deep state completely miss this act? It is as comprehensive as one can possibly get. It pretty much says anyone anywhere who even thought about voter fraud is going to be found guilty of a felony. They say anyone donating money or time to them is guilty. Anyone spreading disinformation or propaganda is ALSO guilty of felony election tampering. Websites hosting the server data can be held accountable.
But go back to that spreading disinformation point. Trump tweeted "I won the election", and Twitter flagged it with a notice saying "OFFICIAL sources" have countered this claim. That is a FELONY! The media are not official sources. Their arrogance is going to lead to prison. Lin Wood is making it clear the media is going to be held accountable as he was on air and named ALL the major news networks name by name who are interfering in the election!
Back to the Powell point, NO ONE is certifying this because despite the media committing a felony by saying there is no evidence of voter fraud, the people who will go to prison KNOW there is and are not going to certify ANYTHING until this is sorted out. Interestingly, Trump expanded the nat'l emergency a few days ago to include weapons of mass destruction. Suspecting a false flag of epic proportions? Perhaps. He is set to bring home more troops from Iraq and Afghanistan this week, and that is by design for this moment.
EVERYTHING we are seeing in public view right now should be considered MEANINGLESS. It's not at all the main act. This is the warm up to the REAL event which is Dominion, Scylt and Smartmatic. This other stuff will also play a roll, but the numbers will pale in comparison to what is about to be unleashed. Trump just said the fake recount in Georgia is meaningless, and it looks more and more like the entire election results will be tossed out in Georgia, not just due to fraud, but Georgia official after official has been exposed having paid money to Dominion, to local dems, denying voting rights, etc. In other words, a vote crime ring.
As an aside, Sidney Powell is 100% for sure an anon. Here she is in a Q dress, and her old tweets include the picture of the Kennedy bell that Q likes to posts, and she says "Where we go one we go all" many times. The question becomes is she actually part of Q? I don't think so since she was added later, but could be. The Trump legal team keeps getting stronger as several new elite lawyers and firms are joining his cause. Are you all as excited as me?
We just learned Mexifornia is officially one of the states under investigation. Q has said MANY times to "watch CA". The Trump legal team has verified they can PROVE massive fraud in NV, PA, WI, MI, GA, AZ, VA, and NH. Do you see the scope of what they are doing? This is NOT an overnight action that needs to be released now to hold the hands of and comfort a bunch of nervous adults. This is the time for the best and brightest to put their game faces on and do what they do. And who acts confident and who acts nervous?
Well, I know PEOPLE are acting irrationally nervous, but the Trump team just exudes confidence. Powell and Lin Wood sound like MMA fighters about to enter the ring against an opponent they are about to throttle. You can tell they are just dying to let us know what they know.
Meanwhile libs are in absolute melt down. They are also trying to cover up their criminality which is also a crime. Dominion a week ago listed 240 employees. Yesterday it was 140. Dominion is tied to the corrupt CISA agency which is tasked with election security. Remember Trump fired the guy? Smartmatic is also purging their website. We have evidence that CNN was working in coordination with Dominion, and the president of CNN was on the air yesterday giving out a list of conservative websites that should be targeted by libs.
CNN is in full PANIC as he is seeing conservatives leave Fox in droves with OANN and NewsMax getting millions of viewers over night. Remember, free speech is a "threat" according to these traitors. The Trump legal team has received threats which they documented and are pursuing legal action. That's smart. Threaten the greatest legal team ever assembled. What could go wrong?
The Dominion Director of Security was caught on video saying "Trump will never win, I made sure of that". Maybe we can make that into a plaque and he hang it up in his prison cell. The Trump team is calling for an official investigation of the GA Sec'y of State. Local newspapers across the country are trying to pressure their local repubs to just accept the stolen election. Let's say they do. So what? Does it make the election official? Will it change the outcome? It's just THEIR nervousness shining through.
Supposedly about two dozen CEO's met to discuss what to do if Trump doesn't step down. Looks like we have people volunteering to find out what happens when convicted for sedition. Moochelle (Obama) said we should just "accept it". Yeah, just like Spotted Al Gore did. Due process of a stolen election be damned. Hilariously, Pedo Joe said people would DIE if the transition doesn't take place soon. Don't worry, people will die. Your people might be given the option of gallows, firing squad or electric chair although if you're a greenie, the electric chair isn't the environmentally friendly way to set up your meeting with Satan.
A Philly mob boss was PAID to print out ballots, and was paid by the ballot. He is turning on Pedo Joe hoping for a plea deal that covers his crime boss activities. The Fuhrer (Obama) called for more social media censorship which I am ALL for at this point since it means more jail time due to the Trump EO. Dorsey and Zuck are set to meet with Congress to explain their election interference. Why? So we can get some cool sound bites while they do nothing? Does what they say matter?
We have cargo ship after cargo ship of evidence of their tampering. Their testimony is worthless and will only make Congress seem like a bunch of eunuchs. Did you know Haspel wasn't informed in advance before the military captured the servers in Germany? The question is why hasn't she been fired yet? I can only assume she is being monitored and they are hoping to track down more of her deep state sleeper agents.
People have taken notice of the fact that every single day more people are getting fired from the Dept of Defense, and genuine decorated war veterans and patriots are being put into place. Not military academic graduates with liberal deep state ties. A Columbia professor called for a Constitutional amendment so someone "like Trump" can never happen again. Translation. Only deep state players are allowed office. Can we hang this guy too?
Meanwhile, we are WINNING big time on other issues. Our side is FINALLY active and confident. Chelsea Clinton posted on Twitter that she is tired of the Trump supporters hanging outside her parents home with megaphones chanting "Lock her up". I LOVE IT! They thought they were the only ones who could do these things.
In Michigan, articles of impeachment were filed against Dim Whitmer. One the surface, she has no defense as she has been found guilty of over reaching by her own court systems. How about this patriot being interviewed by British press? He told the guy that their opinion of what is happening in America stopped mattering in 1776. HILARIOUS!
With everything going on, Trump's approval is still sky high at 52%. 400+ miles of the wall have been built. Remember when the libs pretended like this was the most important issue in the world then completely ignored it during the election? The CEO of Parler, the alternate option to Twitter, said that they could surpass Twitter in a year.
A poll showed that the support for gun control is the lowest it has been in decades. No one wants it. A study showed Trump supporters crush Pedo Joe supporters when it comes to marriage, church attendance and full time employment. They beat us when it comes to low testosterone levels, living in their parents basement and an inability to figure out which bathroom to use.
The Airborne Corps is letting us know something is coming as they are posting on Twitter cool videos basically saying "It's coming" with a bunch of get you pumped up video clips.
Candace Owens blasted Harry Styles who dressed up in a dress for a press shoot. She said she wants to "bring back manly men". She said toxic masculinity was created by toxic feminists which is 100% true. She keeps on reminding us all why we love her.
Here is perhaps the most hilarious news story I have seen in quite some time. They said Durham has stopped investigating because he is afraid of what Pedo Joe will do. BWAHAHA! Why not just tell us Pantifa was given full authority to declare the victor of the election. Why stop with that wish? Jim Jordan flatly refuted this claim. Let me remind you, NO ONE has heard a PEEP out of Durham or his investigators. They have NO IDEA what he is up to or has found. Plus, I expect him to stop investigating. It's been four years. At some point the investigation ends and it ends up in the hands of the grand juries.
Misc items. Governor Newsolini of Mexifornia went to Hawaii along with his staff for a party since he banned this activity in his own state. Furthermore, after a judge called him a dictator, he just announced likely CURFEWS because of Cv-19. I had no idea that CV-19 prowled the streets at night looking for victims. Glad this is all based on science and the law is being respected, right?
Guess what the left labeled as racist today. Working from home. Fun.
The UK announced a ban on all gas powered cars by 2030. I think they called this their "destroy the British economy" plan. Boris Johnson is dating a young liberal who people say has influenced him into becoming a leftist. Based on his policy decisions, it seems true.
Want to see the face of the Green movement when confronted without a script? Here you go. Seems smart to make an autistic teenage high school drop out be the face and voice of a global cause, right? Was Gilbert Grape unavailable?
With word spreading daily that Trump TV is coming, Tucker Carlson said he isn't going anywhere. Not yet, but I think it's coming.
Pedo Joe said no more than 5 people should gather for Thanksgiving. Are you thanking God daily for dodging this evil?
Iran said that Pedo Joe would bring back the "golden days". There you have it. Pedo Joe, choice of terrorists everywhere.
Pedo Joe said he would immediately cancel up to $50,000 of student debt. Show me where he would have the authority to do so, and all that would do is reward kids stupid enough to spend $100,000 to get a degree in transgender cactus studies.
The CDC reported 8,000 poisonings as CV-19 deaths. Finally, I have warning people about this, but the CV-19 sham has shut down food production globally, and the UN is warning of famine of biblical proportions. Tens of millions set to starve to death because a few thousand fat sick old people died of a cold virus. Makes perfect sense.
https://i.imgflip.com/4mku0e.jpg
submitted by alaskansteve to Conservativelifestyle [link] [comments]


2020.11.16 17:50 AwesomeMathUse Canadian Existing Home Sales (Oct. 2020) — The Exodus Continues

BMO
Robert Kavcic, Director and Senior Economist
November 16th, 2020

A few more observations:


Table 1 - Canada - Existing Home Sales - % change
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2020.11.16 16:45 Xethernety SpeakEasy Exceeds Projected Estimates With 72,000 Kilograms on Completion of 2020 Outdoor Harvest

EASY.CN (ASK @ 0.44) -----> SpeakEasy Cannabis Club Ltd.
120 YEARS OF FAMILY FARMING EXPERIENCE PROVES ITS VALUE
Speakeasy's completion of its successful 2020 first outdoor harvest highlights how important the combination of the Geen family's farming experience, combined with genetics and the perfect climate are, in the making of a successful cannabis crop. British Columbia's spring was not a typical one and less than perfect, with wet and cold weather. The fall ended early in spectacular fashion with freezing temperatures and snow, but the summer was exactly what we would expect for this area, blue skies, sun, heat and over 65 days without rain. The unusual fall weather showcased how critical it was to choose an outdoor genetic that finished early, otherwise, one was certain to have challenges harvesting their crop in time. SpeakEasy experienced no harm from weather this year for a variety of reasons. Using three different genetics and three different planting methods allowed us to spread our harvest period over 35 days, of which we took full advantage of each and every day.
Founder Marc Geen says, "What I had imagined for years finally came true and was more spectacular and amazing than I had pictured. It is difficult, if not impossible to describe what standing in the middle of 60 acres of blooming, fragrant cannabis plants is actually like. Everywhere you look, big healthy crystal covered buds, the fruity pungent aroma hanging thick in the air, the satisfaction of seeing the results of so much work, I wish you all could have walked through. Our record breaking plantation didn't go unnoticed this summer as we were featured in Forbes twice, among many other TV, radio and print articles, with one television interview broadcast in over 3.5 million homes."
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UFkhl7q4U9M
QUALITY AND HARVESTING STRATEGY OPENS UP DYNAMIC SALES OPPORTUNITIES TO INCREASE MARGIN
The harvest yielded quality much higher than our expectations. SpeakEasy now holds over 72,000 kilograms of dried, fresh frozen and biomass in its inventory. With its low cost to harvest, as opposed to greenhouse costs that currently dominate the industry, the Company has an opportunity to disrupt categories within the industry. Pre-rolls and a wide range of extract products will be the main end products for the majority of the outdoor crop. We believe that the largest advantage the Company has over its competition is its low cost production, giving us the ability to be extremely price competitive on the market while continuing to maintain healthy profit margins. More and more, price point is becoming a key factor in product selection in the Canadian market and SpeakEasy expects to bring high quality products at extremely competitive pricing.
Geen further states, "We have spent months in discussions with multiple Province's distribution companies and partners who are responsible for distribution for recreational and medical sales along with specialty groups like veterans affairs. Discussions have been very positive and the groups we have begun working with are like minded and enthusiastic about working together."
HARVEST YIELD BREAKDOWN OF 72,000 KILOGRAMS
Founder, Marc Geen further states, "2020 has thrown many things at us, the latest was snow and freezing weather that broke all records in the area dating back to 1886 when they began keeping records here. Thankfully, we completed the harvest with 24 hours to spare. Every time I give updates, I can't help but mention how important our incredible crew is to the success of our Company. With weather bearing down on us, everyone pulled together and got the crop off just in time, sparing us the troubles many others in the industry faced. A huge thank you to everyone. Throughout the harvest, smiles amongst the crew were always easy to find and it was obvious everyone felt proud of their contributions to this wildly successful season. SpeakEasy's future is so bright, and everything is coming together at just the right time. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all of our shareholders, supporters and staff. We have all been through so much this year, here's to 2021 being a break-out year for us all."
https://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/speakeasy-exceeds-projected-estimates-with-72-000-kilograms-on-completion-of-2020-outdoor-harvest-838014667.html
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2020.11.14 18:32 Ok_Trash8550 (2020: Leak) Foo Fighters Medicine at Midnight Album -- Download!! FREE Reddit Music

Medicine at Midnight is the upcoming tenth studio album by American rock band Foo Fighters. Originally scheduled for 2020, the album was delayed to February 5, 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The album's first single, "Shame Shame", was released ahead of the album on November 7, 2020.
Tracks List:
  1. Making a Fire
  2. Shame Shame
  3. Cloudspotter
  4. Waiting on a War
  5. Medicine at Midnight
  6. No Son of Mine
  7. Holding Poison
  8. Chasing Birds
  9. Love Dies Young
Despite finishing the LP in February 2020, it’ll be a full year until it actually arrives. Thanks for that, COVID. Yes, Medicine At Midnight officially has a release date of February 5, 2021 via Roswell Records/Columbia Records, with Dave explaining that coronavirus lockdown put a big pause on the band’s grand plans of world-domination at the start of the year.
“As time went by we just decided, ‘Well, more than anything we want people to hear the new record. We can’t go out and play shows right now, but the music is worth hearing,’” he told Kerrang! of how the Foos got back together after taking this unexpected break. “So we regrouped and came up with a new plan – we had to rethink everything and adapt to what’s going on now.”
Dave Grohl and co gave the first ever performance of Shame Shame on the US TV show Saturday Night Live last night (7 November), which was hosted by friend of the band Dave Chappelle.
The Foos also performed the 2002 track Times Like These on the show, which was broadcast shortly after Joe Biden made his speech accepting the role of the 46th President Of The United States. It was confirmed earlier in the day that Biden had beaten the current President Donald Trump in the US elections.
You can free download Foo Fighters Medicine at Midnight Album For free now.
submitted by Ok_Trash8550 to ThinkMusicEra [link] [comments]


2020.11.11 23:23 Rockafellor “When in Rome”; ch. 1: “Cauchy”

Join Avery D'Arc, Space Orc, as he wrestles with the mysteries of the universe, Cat-girls with no conception of personal space, and the slings and arrows of outrageous vacation destinations.
- - - - -
Cauchy” (cross-post from HFY): Space Orcs might be the most rawly impressive species in the known galaxies, but it turns out that they're not the most confounding when Billie and Avery set out to investigate the mysterious appearance of a vast artificial complex (just one of many). Spanning two light years, its main mass is empty and seems to have no effect on spacetime around it.
Its otherwise bare surface isn't quite entirely bare though, with a ten million mile building standing out as a beacon-like calling card for all and sundry. As if this weren't enough, the interior proves increasingly more bizarre, making the exterior seem merely a little outsized by contrast. At the heart of the matter is a being more outlandish than they'd ever expected, and all because of what will never happen, ensuring that what wasn't remains so.
Cauchy” is the first chapter in the story arc “When in Rome,” which is in turn the third story in a series (“Tell me more about this Earth-thing”).



“Lands' End, Point Omega, call it what you will, it reeks of death,” the Engram intoned.
Ryo-ohki twitched in her sleep, dreaming of an alien planet made of pure carrot, fresh greens sprouting all over the surface, and cool springs and brooks abounding and redolent with sweet, carrot-juicy goodness.
“Silent halls of marble, but impenetrable to all scanners, and resistant to all attempts to so much as scratch them for samples,” it went on, pausing as if to ensure that the significance sank in.
“So, y'all are talkin' a ghost town here?” Avery clarified.
The Engram paused further, considering the Deathworlder's question.
“Ghosts?” it asked, unable to come up with any better reply.
For all that the Deathworlder's language inexplicably matched Audible Galactic Common, there were inevitably some disjoints. Billie had learned that very quickly, and it wasn't just food and local planetary lifeforms and astrography, nor yet their curious deafness to their own minor regional variations (they called them languages, and claimed not to understand one another). Deathworlders had words for weather, pursuits of pleasure, so many methods of warfare… things that rarely had more than the merest tangential similarity to anything cultured and civilized, and this persisted in every “language” on the planet!
“Non-physical continuations of once-living physical beings,” Billie stepped in.
“Of course,” the Engram nodded, “a common enough metamorphic stage for–”
“They dead,” Avery interrupted.
“Then I'm afraid that I don't understand.”
Billie spent the next hour trying to explain primitive Deathworlder superstitions before the Engram gave up, more confused than ever.
“So, the message finally self-destructed?”
“That's not how they work,” ze replied, dodging nimbly around him and fending off his hands as ze made zer way to the food-o-matic, “they're fully integrated archailects1 composed of refracted micronodes for ephemeral interactions.”
“Oh! So... it self-destructed?”
Ze arched zer brow and ignored him as ze withdrew zer half-melted coffee ice cream and mandarin orange sorbet, balancing the slice of gingerbread very carefully and bumping him out of the way with zer hip. The gingerbread was dark and heavy with rum, rich with molasses, allspice, and bits of fruit, and quite distracting to the nose.
“You really like that stuff, huh?” he teased.
“You should too, you know. I find that it 'puts me in the mood,' in case you hadn't noticed.”
“Best stuff in the world, like I always say. Did I ask? No sirree, not me! You sure you got enough there? Lemme go get you some more, you look famished.”


...Spirits and Demons: beware!2 Avery sang aloud, nasal and off-key.
His heart was light and the tune jaunty. All was good with the world.
Billie slapped his arm lightly, half in jest, half soberly.
“OK, OK. But you still ain't said: which one of us is Spencer and which is Tracy?”
“You do remember my 'frog-tongue,' hmm...?”
A smile glued itself to his face as he lost himself for a moment.
“Care to see it again?”
His attention snapped back to the present as the tip of zer tongue slid gently across zer lips, arcing upward to reach zer nose, then slid seductively down and across zer chest.
The tweaks to a Genomorph's body took some time to affect, from hours for minor biochemistry to a few days for major anatomical shifts, and could only come about by horizontal gene transfer. They also took a bit of a toll in caloric needs, nutrition, and even some degree of subconscious acuity while being brought online. Zer body accounted for environmental needs automatically, but ze could also intentionally call up modifications that zer genetic library had previous exposure to.
“I'll be good,” he promised.
Sometimes zer modifications served no immediate practical need, but this 'frog-tongue ' – as Avery had once dubbed it – served several uses, and it was one modification that ze was glad to keep.
Coming out of Planck-BEC transit, they saw what they'd already expected, but it was still difficult to accept.
A featureless surface fully a light year in radius, slightly rounded along the edge and tapering like an inverted chocolate kiss beneath.
Featureless, that is, except for a single structure at the center of the flat face.
A rococo monstrosity ten million miles in each direction, with what could only be described as a garden world with a like footprint laid out before what was undoubtedly its front façade. Sensors showed a Class-M atmosphere along the disc face, along with a one-gee field, solar light beaming into existence in all downward directions from its Kármán line.
Following the beautifully curving ocean-river to either side, one's eyes were naturally drawn to a very clear landing area at what amounted to its doorstep.
Their descent was unhindered and uneventful.
For all of the pomp of the structure's exterior, its interior – or at least what might be called its foyer, whatever its physical extent – was that of a typical space station. Somewhat more convivial, and certainly less business-like, but still easily recognizable as what one might expect of a rich eccentric with an entire planet's resources to throw at their vestibule. Literally a world's resources – that entire world, physically – if you poured it all into an enormous puff-pastry and added intergalactic tech to solve the engineering issues.
And this was just one of the many identical installations that had simply appeared across the galaxies and voids. They had shown up simultaneously, some balancing on black holes' ergospheres, a few sitting directly in place and pierced through by quasars' jets, quite a few buried deep within thick nebulae, and every single one neither affected by nor affecting their surrounding medium.
Avery took a long look across the vast open area, the city-sized water features and rest areas, then back at their all terrain mobile shelter.
“We're gonna need a bigger boat.”
No sooner had he said this than they noticed an unobtrusive area, displaying numerous models of vehicles, but all clearly top of the line. Above the top of the line, from what he could see of Billie's reactions.
All were parked pointing inward, at least those that one could see or infer to have directionality to them.
All were open to anyone who might come along.
“What do you think?” he asked.
Billie simply tilted zer head down and pulled zer neck back, looking up at him with zer brow knitting in clear communication that ze thought that he had finally lost the last of whatever he'd had that passed for Deathworlder sanity.
Then the air between them and the courtesy suite lit up with a soft lavender glow, calm ochre strips marching away at a sedate pace.
In the end, they selected one that resembled a three-legged ice-skating wading pool. Every ship was the height of luxury, food and drink – curious fruit juices, tantalizing pastries, and strange meats of elusive textures and flavors – were brought to them by various services objects (or possibly creatures; they really couldn't tell) in each that they boarded, but this one was the least outlandish-looking of the lot. After the first servitor pair had sought to massage them, and Billie had slapped them soundly for it, further overtures remained constrained to silent tour guides and wait-staff.
The ship traveled far but fast. There was no way to tell their speed, seeming breakneck and crawling at the same time. Sizes and distances were deceptive, and no two things offered a consistent gauge.
At last it came to rest at the opening of a hallway. A hallway of reasonable size letting in to a brass wall without other marks for as far as they could see.
It felt almost claustrophobic in contrast with the journey thence.
They proceeded forward, now on foot, though fed and rested, Ryo-ohki alternating between flouncing along the hall ahead of them and bounding back again.
With nothing more to look at, they became intimately familiar with the walls, ceiling, and floor along the monotonous path. A bland beige to the sides, slightly darker below, slightly lighter above, and hints of varicolored mood-lighting to the air at times. No clear turns were apparent, though every so often they would look ahead or behind and find that the hall now showed some gentle curve to the side, or an incline or downward slope.
They had walked for hours.
Dank and now ill-lit, the air having grown clammy and close, the walls having slowly shifted from finished and seamless metallo-ceramic polymer to crumbling mortar and decaying stones, the hallway had come to an end.
They had seen the exit for a while before reaching it, though it seemed to near them only in jumps.
Now that they had exited, they stood outside of a cave mouth, a simple flat-bottomed boat sitting untended not twenty feet away, a barge-like coracle, no oars nor sails nor rudder. The beach to either side felt soft and pliant, a continuous surface rather than sand, though dully reflective as if of lightly brushed metal, and stretching off into the distance to grow dim and blurred in the twilight and mist.
“Any chance I could talk you into that dolphin blow-hole thing, later?” Avery asked lightly, eyeing the shallow water of a nearby cove.
Billie looked at him, then the cove, and back again, waiting for him to focus on the moment.
He wiggled his eyebrows in an exaggerated fashion, hoping to get a laugh out of zer.
“Yes, that sounds like a terrific idea! Absolutely the most appropriate possible course of action at this time,” ze replied, shaking zer head in equal but mild parts amusement and frustration, and muttering “Maybe later, you sex-crazed Deathworlder.”
Seeing no other option suggest itself, they chose the obvious, the ship accelerating moderately as soon as they'd boarded and heading toward the strait at the far side of the water, raising barely a ripple over the slow swells.
As they made some distance from the beach, the mist thinned, first showing clear the vast and irregular blocks that thrust out from the surface, seeming convex and concave in turns with their angles and curves holding no sure and steady form, and then permitting the looming figures themselves to slowly become apparent along the horizon to the sides.
Cyclopean statues, miles-tall each, their bodies twisting and contorted, some with long and vicious tails in mid-lash, others bearing tentacles depending from their mouths, still others indiscernible but yet giving the impression of deep thought slowed to a standstill. A pale and spectral light limned their skins wan and pallid, leaving a sense of subliminal and oily patterns writhing whenever one wasn't looking.
It didn't help lighten the mood any that Avery could almost hear something baying far ahead of them.


After what might arguably have been only a few miles, the mist closed in once more, sounds muffled and seeming to come from any distance and no direction.
This continued for perhaps ten more minutes before the ship grounded itself.
“Hello, hello, hello-o!”
Avery turned from helping Billie off, stepping out of zer way so that they could now both see the being of smokeless fire that stood before them, chipper and bouncing on its heels as if to greet them warmly.
“Ahh, I am so very glad to see you again, it will have been simply too long,” he said, smiling expansively, “I remembered just in time that you were due to arrive now, and so will be leaving to see you in only a few minutes.”
Avery wasn't sure which to disbelieve more, his ears or his eyes.
Not many Humans had made it off of Earth, or glowed, for that matter – aside from a few hedonists seeking the exotic pleasures and relaxations of alien worlds and culture, there just wasn't much out here to appeal to anyone but a few scientists.
Ryo-ohki's ears perked as she bobbed her head down, then up, repeating this a few times before leaping all around their host, who immediately produced a large carrot from nowhere.
“You may call me Cauchy, and I do apologize for the charade. All of the entry was just theater for your benefit, to give you a sense of accomplishment and some ambiance. Terribly important, ambiance. And a sense of accomplishment. Can't get anywhere without that. Or ambiance, come to think of it.”
Avery leaned in to Billie and whispered behind his hand “Battier than a belfry full of bats on a buttered bagel...”
“Billie, Avery, come. We'll eat, we'll talk, and this will all make ever so much more sense. Except for the bits that won't, of course.”
Dreamlike, sudden and without transition, while yet offering no psychological surprise, as if this were what one would expect had they given it any thought, they were ensconced within a private dining area of comfortable size laid out with cushions all around. Whole lamb tenderloins wrapped in bacon with a mushroom and chestnut chutney between them (hints of anchovy and capers clearly present in the Dijon vinaigrette aroma), and all beneath an outer layer of pancetta sat before each of them on silver platters that hovered still in the air, as did the wine, the crab bisque with malted onion bread, roasted potatoes and toppings, bowls of honeyed lemon yogurt, plates of fig and date pastries, and indeed the entire service. All were engaged thus but for Ryo-ohki, at least, who lay in a pillowed cocoon of lettuce and turnip greens with a huge mixed salad before her, multiple vegetable juices clearly puddled throughout.
They weren't hungry at all – hadn't been since they were last on Billie's ship, in fact – but they all found that they had room to eat.
At a slight remove, neither too near nor too distant, a small assembly of animals played chamber music, its light sounds accompanied by several dancers and a handful of simple stage props.
Peering closer, Avery grew certain that the trees and houses in the background were no props.
“This isn't Yggdrasil, after all,” Cauchy smiled.
“What's Yggdrasil?”
Cauchy smiled again, “Enigmatic.”
“Nano-aether? Some sort of utility fog?” Billie asked abruptly, waving zer hand at the meal.
“No, not that way” Cauchy replied, “quite literally nano-aether in that what you would call Planck-epsilon-bots form and re-form to purpose, and predictively, out of the aetherial substrate of reality, writing bespoke local physical laws as needed and separately endowing resulting materials with whatever properties are called for. You could say that it's easier than doing it myself, but technically it's more complicated in fact, though only in the same sense as epsilon-sub-null3 is meaningfully larger than epsilon-sub-epsilon.”
Avery glanced to Billie, who only shook zer head.
Ze was clueless as to what this mysterious Genomorph was talking about, and greatly relieved that Avery was showing patience with zer practically private conversation. Still and all though, it was unspeakably gauche to dive into conversation in one's homeworld language when around other species without first ensuring that they too understood it or possessed a translator.
Considering all of this, ze cast about. The food, all of the familiar things of home, lacked luster. The raktajino a flavorless dishwater to match its tepid state, the hasperat bland and seeming almost as if made of mashed avocado and boiled spinach and crème fraîche in unseasoned roux crêpes, and the iguana-chicken tasted like steamed tofu.
Ze had no idea of how Avery was managing to make his way through any of it.
At least Ryo-ohki seemed happy with her greens.
“Home is where the heart is, some say,” Cauchy murmured.
Ze looked up at this, but ze only gestured to zer food again.
Sighing, ze nodded and returned to zer plates, only to find vichyssoise with brown bread rarebit, a perfectly seared bacon cheeseburger with roasted tomatoes and bursting with grease, chipped potatoes, Caesar salad, a spiced treacle pudding with custard and pear – and coffee. Looking up again, ze saw that Avery's food had changed as well, now bearing all of the familiar hallmarks of deathworld cuisine.
“The nano-aether,” Cauchy explained, seeing zer surprise.
“Is it a new development?” ze asked.
“Not yet, no,” ze replied.
“I don't mean to be rude or nothing, but what's a Human doing way out here, anyway?” Avery asked.
More surprised by this than by anything else so far, Billie looked around quickly. Surely they were the only ones to have come here recently, and just as surely no other Human had been here before, much less left behind.
“Oh, investigating the mysterious, of course.”
“And how'd you get here?”
“I was already here, have always will be – that's why you are now, after all,” Cauchy replied.
“Where's this other Human?” Billie interjected nervously. Ze'd grown accustomed to their ways, to an extent, but they were wildly unpredictable, and the circumstances here were far from ordinary.
“What other Human?” Avery replied, looking around himself, now.
“The one that you're talking about, dear.”
“What? I was just talking with Cauchy, here.”
“Yes. About a Human.”
His eyes narrowed as he tried to work out where ze was going with this.
Ze continued to stare at him levelly while waiting for him to simply answer zer.
It was Cauchy who brokered the détente.
“He means me, Billie. I am a Ljósálf4, and our physical appearance varies with the psyche of the observer. To you, I am a Genomorph; to him, a Human. And no, I don't speak any language5, which is why you're each able to understand me respectively – and before you ask, I can't read your mind, I only knew because it's what you were going to ask, though you won't now, but it's just as true, so the paradox resolves as a subjunctive tautology – a sort of Nash Equilibrium cum Feynman diagram.”
Needless to say, this sparked some rather confusing conversation. For one thing, it turned out that Ljósálfar tour worlds, which Cauchy insisted were “world-ponds,” as if they were museums, precious and fleeting moments pinned in place like flies in amber.
“And our universe is one of them?” Billie asked, trying to feel zer way through what Cauchy was saying.
“Yes.”
“And these other universes–”
“World-ponds. Or worlds, if you wish.”
“They're worlds, but not in this universe.”
“Right.”
“And this universe is a world.”
“Exactly.”
“But these other worlds aren't universes.”
“Well... some of them are. An infinite number of them, really. Beth two of them, if you really want to split hairs.”
“And all of these universes aren't a multiverse.”
“Not at all, just all part of the universe as a whole, really.”
“So they're all just worlds, as far as universes and worlds go.”
“To be fair, so are the worlds. They're worlds too. And some have universes in them.”
“An infinite number of worlds? Beth two of them, if I really wanted to split hairs?”
“Now you have it!”
Ze had no idea what ze had, but it was nice to have it.
Like nailing down mud, Avery would say.
“You know what they say,” Cauchy countered, apropos of nothing, “all roads lead to Ljósálfheimr. Isn't that right, Ryo-ohki, my little Beth Node6? Yes it is! Yes! And you know just what I'm talking about, now don't you? Ohh, yes you do!”
The cabbit purred as her leg thumped in time with his scratching her head and neck, and chucking her beneath her chin with his fingertips.
“Where's Ljósálfheimr?” Avery asked.
“Well-l-l, after normalizing your non-orientable monadic space – co-dimension7 three, you might say, but that would be telling,” Cauchy winked, “– and accounting for the effective cosmic scalar transform, zeta function notwithstanding...” he continued, sticking a finger into his mouth, then holding it aloft for a moment, “round about fifty billion light years thataway,” he said, crossing his arms, one finger pointing vaguely up and to the side, the other hand curled halfway around backward, “You could then add a little over one point eight million miles west-northwest, plus quite a bit of a ways extra-up and just a touch semi-kata in a Hausdorff-fractal sense. Or not, that's your call.
“Look, I called you here today... do you know, I've always wanted to say that!
“I called you here today to discuss a matter of great importance.”
Here he looked around, as if seeing if anyone were eavesdropping.
Softly, the entertainers' music faded away, replaced by sourceless expository music drifting downward from the very air above them in general and gradually becoming focused from some point between them all.
“I'm going to tell you a story, and in this story, time isn't, it's just being,” he began, tapping the bridge of his nose, “The Greys go as fast as possible to stay in one place, a question of indeterminacy, you see, a bit like the Red Queen8, though I really don't think that you'd like her one bit. I know I don't, I don't mind telling you.
“Meanwhile, Ásgarðr is set to position-only, making speed irrelevant – not negated or uncertain, mind; movement is possible, but that would cause 'problems,' and I won't be clarifying that phrasing. Location is treated as a property of matter, assigned by quantum hand-waving, and can be manipulated and designated; it's what keeps Ásgarðr in place and shielded, after all.
“If we assume some upper speed limit for ships – or buildings, or cities, or world-ponds – then this explains the observed speeds that one would expect of Kardashёv type two-plus technology to be able to exceed. This isn't necessary, if such speeds are permitted to occur, but permitting higher speeds would also beg the question of larger networks of world-ponds forming more solid groups or empires.
“Now tell me, why do you suppose it is that they don't, hmm? What if, let's say – and just for fun, of course – what if there were some property of spacetime that doesn't prohibit that, it just makes it an Incredibly Bad Idea to exceed some approximate boundary speed? For example, if you go less than speed X, you're fine. Go at speeds in a certain higher range, and you'll blow things to kingdom come. Your ship, and likely everything within a thousand miles, for example. Go above that range though, and you're looking at shattering the foundations of reality. Not a black hole, as such – more like... more like reaching a resonant frequency in a two-dimensional world set between glass plates, or no, a two-dimensional world that is a glass plate, one that's right smack up against other such worlds: rub those just right, the panes shatter, and everything melts into madness, and reality becomes a distorted version of itself, along with local fluctuations of physical laws that might well vary over time as well. This melting and merging of realities isn't a probability-superposition-thing, just a blurry wobbly thing of literal physical speed and location in a spatiotemporally infinite rule-based random universe; it all has to do with which world you're in at any given moment, and being in too many of them over the course of too few moments, and so it reaches a sort of Hagedorn temperature, except that instead of energy density, it's the informational entropy of the location property, which in a Shannon sense is somewhat equivalent I suppose, not to mention the silly buggers it plays with an imaginary Doppler shift...
“But not to worry, this won't be a problem.”
They sat there dazed for a moment.
“Then why are you telling us all of this?” Billie asked, “And you do realize that we have no idea who or what all of these things are, don't you?”
“No, no, no. And yes, of course. But both of these are why it won't be: because it did, or else we wouldn't be here now, because you weren't anymore, or else you would have been, and we wouldn't, but now you are because you will be were. You see? Reality never was anyway, since we wouldn't be here if it were, except that we are, so there it is. Bit of a sticky wicket, I know.”
“But why so many of these... this place?”
“Well, I had to be sure that I got your attention, now didn't I?”
Having wound down, he focused on a fingernail for a moment, then began to chew at it.
“So, you're trying to warn us to warn them not to play with higher speeds?” Avery asked, beginning to boil it down.
“Oh, quite the contrary: what will be, always was. Now it's just a question of not doing what you're going to do, and you haven't, so you won't. I find that what isn't happening is always far more fascinating to watch than what is, don't you agree?
“Now, aside from catching up to do, time is short, but we have plenty of it. So, what did you want to talk about?”
In the end, they left rather more confused than they'd been upon their arrival, but had apparently made an old friend, having only just then met him – or zer or it – and were eventually assured that they did indeed meet again. They actually found themselves looking forward to this, albeit with more than a little concern.


They had talked for so long that dinner had turned into an extended brunch. Billie had nibbled the most delicious ginger muffin, then a simple gingered mushroom and scallion noodle soup. Knowing better, this soon became a theme nevertheless. The ginger curried chicken had been strong, but the “palate cleansing” slices of pickled ginger understandably more so. Ze'd thrown caution to the wind after that, piling on a light ginger tea, sliced pork with ginger-rhubarb compote, salad with a ginger dressing, caramelized peaches in ginger syrup, and at last a large ginger margarita.
Yeller had chosen to sleep in the flight deck, and they'd finally managed to free the bed of Paws, and so they could now relax at last.
“Mmm, did I mention that raʔûR will be visiting? You'll finally get to meet her!”
Avery nodded uncertainly, not uncomfortable with the thought, but unsure of where ze was heading with this. The Cat-girl was one of zer best friends, and he didn't wish to misstep with this.
“And I never have shown you my spinnerets, now have I...?” ze asked coyly, sipping a sweet ginger Armagnac as they slid beneath the sheets. The bed covers were semi-sapient, designed to snuggle close and actively provide psychological cover, warmth, cooling ripples of air, massages, and hugs; Avery still wasn't quite used to them, but this spinneret thing held his full attention now.
He quirked his brow.
“Oh, nothing, just a little surprise that I was calling up before all of this began – but if you're not interested...” ze wriggled zer hips suggestively, then shrugged.
The temperature and air currents were perfect, the gravitational center set to just inches above the sleeping nest, but still a ginger candle burned nearby, adding to the close of zer day. It would be days before the air cleared of it, and they'd both be sore and exhausted afterward, but it would be worth it, and right now ze had only one thing on zer mind anyway.
Their report would take some time to compose. Detailing it all would be straightforward enough, but supplying coherent interpretations of it all would likely prove itself a challenge.
For now, they simply settled for a good, long rest – first things first, though, of course; after all, one must keep one's eyes on the important things in life.


O ~~~ O


Footnotes:

1 Archailect: See Orion's Arm (URL below) for greater detail, ▐► https://www.orionsarm.com/eg-topic/492d76d2f173e

2 Demons and Witches: From the theme song of “Ghost Busters ”, the 1975 Filmation live action Scooby-wannabe (not its 1986 incarnation, nor the unrelated Columbia franchise). ▐► https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lBZCUiR7Iq8&list=PLIl2eWOVM20HMp85S3KZFgftJRgwStzIv

3 Epsilon null: Here, Cauchy is referring to the surreal divisions of infinitesimal epsilon, rather than the transfinites, or I'd have written “...meaningfully smaller...” rather than “...meaningfully larger...” – his point being that either is negligible, mathematically vanishing, but not identical.
TL;DR is essentially (and painfully inaccurate, mathematically) 1/∞; in this context, ε-sub-ε could then be likened to (1/∞)/∞, though this is where we would normally differentiate between the former denominator being aleph null and the latter combined form being more akin to aleph one or beth one (then again, normally ε^2 = 0, which would normally put paid to the whole issue were it not for surreals).
For a more in-depth coverage of epsilon (and ZFC to an extent) please see the Technical Appendix of the “Icewall ” .pdf at: ▐► https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1BG7P_sVezz8Dn5b8js_34yeAjSBhfN0v
See also “I am the Walrus ” footnote on aleph and beth numbers (essentially the transfinite complement of infinitesimal epsilons – the latter not to be confused with the poorly named transfinite epsilon) at ▐► https://archiveofourown.org/works/26951104
This footnote is a rather abbreviated and very limited explanation, but it would take up far too much space to explain it well (not to mention all of the mistakes that I'd no doubt make). Go to your favorite math site / encyclopedia, and/or search engine – or simply StackExchange, Wikipedia, Wolfram MathWorld, DavidDarlingInfo, Quora, etc. – and look into the terms {transfinite, infinitesimal, aleph number, beth number, nimber, surreal number, hyperreal number, and ZFC / Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory with AC (axiom of choice)}.

4 Ljósálf: Operating at a level at least that of the Avatars of “Charmed ” and Time Lords of “Dr. Who ”, Ljósálfar are demonstrably Powers (Appendix F “Powers and Principalities ” of WIP “I am Legion ” .pdf, Tier Two: Supers, Rank 5+: individually Kardashёv Type I-II, Classic Traveller TL 17-25) at a bare minimum. The nature of Cauchy's private universe (and Ljósálven idiosyncrasies) argues a good chance of his being a low-rank Principality (Tier Three, Rank 1-2), though probably(?) less powerful than Q, the Beyonder, or Dr. Manhattan (but presumably more powerful than Moorcock's Gods of Law and Chaos).
I am Legion ” .pdf available at ▐► https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1BG7P_sVezz8Dn5b8js_34yeAjSBhfN0v
NB: re. Principalities, cf. Qhalqhal of “Nothing's gonna change my world ” URL below (or Negent of the WIP “I am Legion ”): individually Kardashёv Type III-V, Classic Traveller TL >27 → 31+. ▐► https://archiveofourown.org/works/24380977
Ljósálven environs are perceived as whatever comforts the beholder, appropriate to circumstance. In a like manner, their physical appearance is that of whichever species is looking at them. >>> 𝐒𝐏𝐎𝐈𝐋𝐄𝐑 >>> This is much like the Vorlons of Babylon 5, though without the limiting factor of how many are looking – it was only after thinking of this (and not much later, either) that I finally watched B5, but there's never anything new under the sun, it seems. <<< 𝐄𝐍𝐃 𝐒𝐏𝐎𝐈𝐋𝐄𝐑 <<<

5 Language: In “The Space Orcs are coming, hooray, hooray! ”, we saw that all of Earth's languages are heard by intergalactics as a single language with tiny regional differences that might as well amount to no more than slight and irrelevant accents. Now we find that each species has its own language, but that they're presumably mostly or always the pulp sci-fi trope of a monoculture; one species, one language. We also see here that at least this Ljósálf (NB: yes, all of the rest of them, too) doesn't even have language at all, much less a language in particular. Curiouser and curiouser.

6 Beth Node: I'd explain this, but... spoilers. If you really insist, then you can find them (and Aleph Nodes) explained in a couple of references in the “Icewall ” .pdf and the Afterword of the “Seize the Deity ” .pdf. Once you tumble to their implications, make what you will of this Galactic world-pond.
Seize the Deity ” .pdf available at ▐► https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1BG7P_sVezz8Dn5b8js_34yeAjSBhfN0v

7 Co-dimension: There's an Easter Egg waiting there. Who might be interested, search out the term. Doctor the math. It won't take too much time, and it's “relatively ” funny.

8 Red Queen: Yes, the “Alice in Wonderland ” series. She's an example BBEG in this story's larger RPG/story meta-setting of Icewall.

= = = = =

Cauchy” is the first chapter in the story arc “When in Rome,” which is in turn the third story in a series (“Tell me more about this Earth-thing”).
When in Rome” is an ongoing story arc, with three chapters so far. The first two chapters (“Cauchy” and “Don't throw the babe out with the bathwater”) are already uploaded to AO3 (if you can't wait for it on reddit). I plan to upload the third chapter (“A day at the beach”) to AO3 this coming Sunday.
I also plan to upload that second chapter to reddit here next week, though it and the third chapter feel more like Tenchi Muyo than a more general Space-Orcs-theme to me, so I'm unsure of whether you guys might want it here -- then again, the third chapter does show some of the Space Orc pack protection and its side effects.
I expected the third chapter to end this story arc, but a plot bunny attacked me last night, so there's a fourth one in development (“Is he good to you?”). Captain Stabby the Skutter attacks, and there's some relationship talk between Billie and one of the Catgirls (whom you'll meet in chapter 2), but that's all that I know so far (though I do want to introduce a hortaform pet rock).
submitted by Rockafellor to humansarespaceorcs [link] [comments]


2020.11.11 19:29 FightingForSarah Hanford nuclear waste site

The Hanford nuclear waste site is the major plutonium production site of the US federal government. During World War II, the Manhattan project resulted in the building and detonation of the world’s first nuclear weapons. Many facilities and laboratories around the country took part, but the main effort took place at the Clinton Engineer Works near Oak Ridge, Tennessee (X-10 reactor [first plutonium production], Y-12 electromagnetic separation plant [uranium enrichment], K-25 gaseous diffusion plant [weapons grade uranium enrichment], S-50 liquid thermal diffusion plant [uranium enrichment, unsuccessful], a coal fired electrical plant, and supporting facilities) and the Hanford site in Washington state (B reactor, full scale plutonium production). During the cold war, plutonium production was expanded at Hanford and initiated at the Savannah River Site, and plutonium machining operations were conducted at the Rocky Flats plant near Denver Colorado. All of these locations have extensive and lasting radioactive contamination, but the Hanford site took the brunt of the trial and error learning process that was required to sort out nuclear fuel reprocessing for the extraction of plutonium and is by far the most heavily contaminated. Perhaps because of this, the subsequent cleanup effort at Hanford has been by far the least effective out of any of the remediations at US nuclear weapons sites, with the situation still unstable over 70 years later.
The Hanford site is located in eastern Washington adjacent to the Columbia River, and was chosen to allow the easy rejection of waste heat from the plutonium production reactors into the river water. However, this also means that radionuclides dumped or leaked into the ground can and have eventually made their way into the river. From there, they contaminate sediments at the river bottom or are eventually deposited into the Pacific Ocean. After a short dwell time in the plutonium production reactors on the river banks, nuclear fuel was transported by rail to the extraction buildings, which were the source of the most significant contamination. Liquid wastes from the plutonium extraction processes used were stored in hastily built, single layer tanks that have been the source of the majority of the leaked radionuclides that are finding their way into the river. Contamination is also present in the burial trenches and landfills for solid waste, the interiors of the plutonium extraction buildings, the production reactor sites, the fast flux test facility reactor, and the still active Columbia generating station reactor. Remediation work in process includes the dismantling of equipment inside buildings followed by the careful demolition of the buildings, demolition of non radioactive supporting infrastructure, removal of reactor structures, and the most hazardous task: dealing with the highly radioactive liquids, sludges, and precipitates in the storage tanks and the surrounding soil. The intended remedy is to immobilize these substances in glass, but the vitrification plant that is being build to accomplish this has been poorly engineered and has been struggling with construction delays and cost overruns.
In addition to the waste that leaked and is leaking from storage tanks, radioactive materials were also vented into the air and discharged into the Columbia river during operation. In the “green run” and other intentional releases of fission products, the local population was poisoned to test the possible effects of nuclear war in one of the many sadistic abuses inflicted on non-consenting sections of the US population (see also: Tuskegee syphilis study, administration of radioactive iodine/uranium/plutonium/iron/calcium/phosphorous/radium/thorium/cortisol/etc, whole body irradiation, chemical weapons testing, Agent Orange/dioxin, torture, psychoactive drugs, and many, many others). At Hanford, 200.000 cubic meters of liquid high level radioactive waste has remained in the storage tanks, joining 710.000 cubic meters of solid radioactive waste and extremely large volumes of contaminated soil. Remediation work has seen the liquids transferred into new double shell tanks (leaving solids and salts in the original single shell tanks), but construction errors and corrosion affect a large number of the new tanks and at least one leak has been reported to date. Even if all the waste can be collected and buried with appropriate barriers in place, the radioactivity will remain, requiring continued attention for the next few thousand years to prevent leaks. Additionally, the radionuclides that have been leaked into the soil and the groundwater will be difficult or impossible to retrieve.
Three plutonium production reactors were built during World War II (B, D, F), as were the three 250 meter long “canyon” chemical separation buildings that would eventually host the PUREX solvent extraction process. After 1945, the original three reactors were upgraded and six more were built (C, KE, KW, N, DR, H). Plutonium production peaked between 1956 and 1965, and the reactors were shut down between 1964 and 1987. The B reactor was critical at intervals between Sep 1944 and Feb 1968, the D reactor between Dec 1944 and Jun 1967, the F reactor between Feb 1945 and Jun 1965, the H reactor between Oct 1949 and Apr 1965, the DR reactor between Oct 1950 and Dec 1964, the C reactor between Nov 1952 and Apr 1969, the K West reactor between Jan 1955 and Feb 1970, the K East reactor between Apr 1955 and Jan 1971, and the N reactor between Dec 1963 and Jan 1987. In combination with the nuclear fuel reprocessing and plutonium finishing plants, 57 tons of plutonium was produced during the 43 years of reactor operations, enough for most of the 60.000 nuclear weapons constructed by the US federal government. As can be seen by the 910.000 cubic meters of nuclear waste generated along with this 57 tons, small amounts of fission products are sufficient to irretrievably contaminate much large amounts of water, organic solvents, towels, gloves, equipment, piping, and whatever else is included in the solid waste volume.
The first eight plutonium production reactors (B D F H DR C KW KE)passed treated river water directly through the nuclear fuel, disposing of the entire thermal output as waste heat. The cladding used was either nonexistent or somehow completely unable to keep fission products out of the coolant, which was held in retention ponds to allow the shorter-lived isotopes to decay before being dumped back into the river. In 1992, 21 years after the last (KE) reactor was finally shut down in Jan 1971, detectable levels of radiation from these isotopes were present in sediments along the entire downstream length of the Columbia River (https://www.nytimes.com/1992/07/17/us/radiation-flowed-200-miles-to-sea-study-finds.html ). Any indigenous people relying on river fish as food between 1944 and 1971 would have been unknowingly exposed to up to several times the background level of radiation, elevating their cancer risk. The essentially nonexistent environmental (and most probably operational) safeguards on these early reactors should give an idea of just how cavalier the US federal government was between 1944 and 1955. The later N reactor was of a more conventional design and captured some of the heat to generate electricity in addition to its plutonium production role in addition to having cladding that could prevent the release of massive quantities of radionuclides.
Radiation was also released into the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing and into the ground through leaking tanks, with a plume of contaminants present in the ground water and beginning to reach springs at the riverbank starting in 1994 and consistently increasing afterwards. Species include tritium, iodine-129, strontium-90, technetium-99, uranium-234, uranium−235, and uranium−238 in addition to the purely chemical contaminants arsenic, chromium, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and sulfate. The former group is either nuclear fuel or fission products, while the reason for the presence of most of the identified contaminants in the latter group does not make much sense based on the publicly available information about the plutonium extraction process. However, clearly some exceedingly nasty chemical compounds were applied, became contaminated with fission products, were put into tanks, and then leaked out into the ground and groundwater. Some thousands of liters per year continue to leak out of the tanks, which were theoretically organized to some extent by the type of waste they contained but in practice were just used to dump whatever waste was on hand at any given moment. The resulting hodgepodge of chemical and radiological hazards is not well characterized, the actual leak rate can only be estimated, and people working near the tanks have been receiving exposures to unidentified hazardous vapors since at least 1987. Close to 4 million liters of liquid waste is estimated as being present moving slowly toward the river in the groundwater, and large quantities of fissile materials remain on site (in the case of plutonium-239, requiring storage for 241.000 years). The US department of energy contracted with Bechtel (the B in the A1B and S1B naval reactors) in 2000 to build a vitrification plant to immobilize the liquid wastes in glass, with construction starting in 2002 and operation scheduled to start 2011. As of 2020, no waste has yet been vitrified, and Washington state officials have asked the federal government to redirect some of the limited available funding towards removing radionuclides from the groundwater.
In summary, the radiological and chemical situation at the Hanford nuclear waste site is no longer as hazardous as it was during operations, but significant safety issues and potential safety issues remain for those working on site cleanup and those living downstream. As with the areas surrounding Mayak, Chernobyl, and Fukushima, the site area will not be fit for human habitation in the foreseeable future, and the responsible government will need to continue remediation operations in perpetuity. On a global scale, none of the nuclear waste zones are all that concerning, but the question must be asked: was the damage done to the environment worth the electricity and the nuclear weapons that have been and are being produced? With the benefit of hindsight, I would say probably not, but the point is that we as a species are stuck with nuclear contamination essentially forever. This factor should be considered when the time comes to accept or reject new nuclear projects.
submitted by FightingForSarah to SpaceXFactCheck [link] [comments]


2020.11.07 16:36 shylock92008 WRITTEN STATEMENT OF CELERINO CASTILLO III, (D.E.A., RETIRED) FOR THE HOUSE PERMANENT SELECT COMMITTEE ON INTELLIGENCE

April 27, 1998 For several years, I fought in the trenches of the front lines of Reagan's "Drug War", trying to stamp out what I considered American's greatest foreign threat. But, when I was posted, in Central and South America from 1984 through 1990, I knew we were playing the "Drug War Follies." While our government shouted "Just Say No !", entire Central and South American nations fell into what are now known as, "Cocaine democracies."
While with the DEA, I was able to keep journals of my assignments in Central and South America. These journals include names, case file numbers and DEA NADDIS (DEA Master Computer) information to back up my allegations. I have pictures and original passports of the victims that were murdered by CIA assets. These atrocities were done with the approval of the agencies.
We, ordinary Americans, cannot trust the C.I.A. Inspector General to conduct a full investigation into the CIA or the DEA. Let me tell you why. When President Clinton (June, 1996) ordered The Intelligence Oversight Board to conduct an investigation into allegations that US Agents were involved in atrocities in Guatemala, it failed to investigate several DEA and CIA operations in which U.S. agents knew before hand that individuals (some Americans) were going to be murdered.
I became so frustrated that I forced myself to respond to the I.O.B report citing case file numbers, dates, and names of people who were murdered. In one case (DEA file # TG-86-0005) several Colombians and Mexicans were raped, tortured and murdered by CIA and DEA assets, with the approval of the CIA. Among those victims identified was Jose Ramon Parra-Iniguez, Mexican passport A-GUC-043 and his two daughters Maria Leticia Olivier-Dominguez, Mexican passport A-GM-8381. Also included among the dead were several Colombian nationals: Adolfo Leon Morales-Arcilia "a.k.a." Adolfo Morales-Orestes, Carlos Alberto Ramirez, and Jiro Gilardo-Ocampo. Both a DEA and a CIA agent were present, when these individuals were being interrogated (tortured). The main target of that case was a Guatemalan Congressman, (Carlos Ramiro Garcia de Paz) who took delivery of 2,404 kilos of cocaine in Guatemala just before the interrogation. This case directly implicated the Guatemalan Government in drug trafficking (The Guatemalan Congressman still has his US visa and continues to travel at his pleasure into the US). To add salt to the wound, in 1989 these murders were investigated by the U.S Department of Justice, Office of Professional Responsibility. DEA S/I Tony Recevuto determined that the Guatemalan Military Intelligence, G-2 (the worst human rights violators in the Western Hemisphere) was responsible for these murders. Yet, the U.S. government continued to order U.S. agents to work hand-in-hand with the Guatemalan Military. This information was never turned over to the I.O.B. investigation. (See attached response)
I have obtained a letter, dated May 28, 1996, from the DEA administrator, to U.S. Congressman Lloyd Doggett (D), Texas. In this letter, the administrator flatly lies, stating that DEA agents "have never engaged in any joint narcotics programs with the Guatemalan Military".
I was there. I was the leading Agent in Guatemala. 99.9% of DEA operations were conducted with the Guatemalan military. In 1990, the DEA invited a Guatemalan military G-2 officer, Cpt. Fuentez, to attend a DEA narcotic school, which is against DEA policy. I know this for a fact because I worked with this officer for several years and was in Guatemala when he was getting ready to travel to the States.
Facts of my investigation on CIA-Contras drug trafficking in El Salvador:
The key to understanding the "crack cocaine" epidemic, which exploded on our streets in 1984, lies in understanding the effect of congressional oversight on covert operations. In this case the Boland amendment(s) of the era, while intending to restrict covert operations as intended by the will of the People, only served to encourage C.I.A., the military and elements of the national intelligence community to completely bypass the Congress and the Constitution in an eager and often used covert policy of funding prohibited operations with drug money.
As my friend and colleague Michael Ruppert has pointed out through his own experience in the 1970s, CIA has often bypassed congressional intent by resorting to the drug trade (Vietnam, Laos, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, etc).
When the Boland Amendment(s) cut the Contras off from a continued U.S. government subsidy, George Bush, his national security adviser Don Gregg, and Ollie North, turned to certain foreign governments, and to private contributions, to replace government dollars. Criminal sources of contributions were not excluded. By the end of 1981, through a series of Executive Orders and National Security Decision Directives, many of which have been declassified, Vice President Bush was placed in charge of all Reagan administration intelligence operations. All of the covert operations carried out by officers of the CIA, the Pentagon, and every other federal agency, along with a rogue army of former intelligence operatives and foreign agents, were commanded by George Bush. Gary Webb (San Jose Mercury News) acknowledged, that he simply had not traced the command structure over the Contras up into the White House, although he had gotten some indications that the operation was not just CIA. On Dec. 01, 1981, President Ronald Reagan signed a secret order authorizing the CIA to spend $19.9 million for covert military aid to the recently formed Contras--- hardly enough money to launch a serious military operation against the Cuban and Soviet-backed Sandinista regime.
In August 1982, George Bush hired Donald P. Gregg as his principal adviser for national security affairs. In late 1984, Gregg introduced Oliver North to Felix Rodriguez, (a retired CIA agent) who had already been working in Central America for over a year under Bush's direction. Gregg personally introduced Rodriguez to Bush on Jan. 22, 1985. Two days after his January 1985 meeting, Rodriguez went to El Salvador and made arrangements to set up his base of operations at Ilopango air base. On Nov. 01, 1984, the FBI arrested Rodriguez's partner, Gerard Latchinian and convicted him of smuggling $10.3 million in cocaine into the U.S.
On Jan. 18, 1985, Rodriguez allegedly met with money-launderer Ramon Milan-Rodriguez, who had moved $1.5 billion for the Medellin cartel. Milan testified before a Senate Investigation on the Contras' drug smuggling, that before this 1985 meeting, he had granted Felix Rodriguez's request and given $10 million from the cocaine for the Contras.
On September 10, 1985, North wrote in his Notebook:
"Introduced by Wally Grasheim/Litton, Calero/Bermudez visit to Ilopango to estab. log support./maint. (...)"
In October of 1985, Upon my arrival in Guatemala, I was forewarned by Guatemala DEA, County AttachпїЅ, Robert J. Stia, that the DEA had received intelligence that the Contras out of Salvador, were involved in drug trafficking. For the first time, I had come face to face with the contradictions of my assignment. The reason that I had been forewarned was because I would be the Lead Agent in El Salvador.
DEA Guatemalan informant, Ramiro Guerra (STG-81-0013) was in place in Guatemala and El Salvador on "Contra" intelligence. At the time (early 80's), he was a DEA fugitive on "Rico" (Racketeering Influence and Corrupt Organizations) and "CCE" (Continuing Criminal Enterprise) charges out of San Francisco. In 1986, he became an official advisor for the DEA trained El Salvador Narcotics Task Force. In 1989, all federal charges were dropped because of his cooperation with the DEA in Central America. Guerra is still a DEA informant in Guatemala.
December 1985, CNN reporter Brian Barger broke the story of the Contra's involved in drug trafficking.
Notes from my Journals & Intelligence Gathering
January 13, 1986, I wrote a report on El Salvador under DEA file (GFTG-86-9145).
January 16, 1986---HK-1217W--Carlos Siva and Tulio Pedras Contra pilots.
January 23, 1986, GFTG-86-9999, Air
Intelligence in "El Salvador" TG-86-0003, Samana and Raul.
In 1986, I placed an informant (Mario Murga) at the Ilopango airport in El Salvador. He was initiated and wrote the flight plans for most Contra pilots. After their names were submitted into NADDIS, it was revealed that most pilots had already been document in DEA files as traffickers. (See DEA memo by me date 2-14-89.)
Feb. 05, 1986, I had seized $800,000.00 in cash, 35 kilos of cocaine, and an airplane at Ilopango. DEA # TG-86-0001; Gaitan-Gaitan, Leonel
March 24, 1986, I wrote a DEA report on the Contra operation. (GFTG-86-4003, Frigorificos de Puntarenas, S.A), US registration aircraft N-68435 (Cessna 402).
April 17, 86, I wrote a Contra report on Arturo Renick; Johnny Ramirez (Costa Rica). Air craft TI-AQU & BE-60.. GFTG-86-9999; Air Intelligence.
April 25,26 1986--I met with CIA Felix Vargas in El Salvador (GFTG-86-9145).
April of 1986, The Consul General of the U.S Embassy in El Salvador (Robert J. Chavez), warned me that CIA agent George Witters was requesting a U.S visa for a Nicaraguan drug trafficker and Contra pilot by the name of Carlos Alberto Amador. (mentioned in 6 DEA files)
May 14, 1986, I spoke to Jack O'Conner DEA HQS Re: Matta-Ballesteros. (NOTE: Juan Ramon Matta-Ballesteros was perhaps the single largest drug trafficker in the region. Operating from Honduras he owned several companies which were openly sponsored and subsidized by C.I.A.)
May 26, 1986, Mario Rodolfo Martinez-Murga became an official DEA informant (STG-86-0006). Before that, he had been a sub-source for Ramiro Guerra and Robert Chavez. Under Chavez, Murga's intelligence resulted in the seizure of several hundred kilos of cocaine, (from Ilopango to Florida) making Murga a reliable source of information.
May 27, 1986, I Met U.S. Army Lt. Col. Alberto Adame in El Salvador. Has knowledge of the Contra Operation at Ilopango. He was in El Salvador from 1984 thru 1987.
On June 06, 1986, I send a DEA report/telex cable to Washington DEA in regards to Contra pilots, Carlos Amador and Carlos Armando Llamos (Honorary Ambassador from El Salvador to Panama) (N-308P). Llamos had delivered 4 1/2 million dollars to Panama from Ilopango for the Contras. Information was gathered by informant Mario Murga. Leon Portilla-TIANO = Navojo 31 & YS-265-American Pilot: Francisco Viaud. Roberto Gutierrez (N-82161) Mexican (X-AB)
June 10, 1998, I spoke to CIA agent Manny Brand Re: Sofi Amoury (Cuban Contra operator and Guatemalan Galvis-Pena in Guatemala.
June 16, 1986-GFTG-86-9999, Air Intel (DEA-6) El Salvador
Early part of 1986, I received a telex/cable from DEA Costa Rica. SA Sandy Gonzales requested for me to investigate hangers 4 and 5 at Ilopango. DEA Costa Rica had received reliable intelligence that the Contras were flying cocaine into the hangars. Both hangers were owned and operated by the CIA and the National Security Agency. Operators of those two hangars were, Lt. Col. Oliver North and CIA contract agent, Felix Rodriguez, "a.k.a." Max Gomez. (See attached letter by Bryan Blaney (O.I.C.), dated March 28, 1991).
June 18, 1986, Salvadoran Contra pilot, Francisco "Chico" Guirrola-Beeche (DEA NADDIS # 1585334 and 1744448) had been documented as a drug trafficker. On this date, at 7:30a.m, he departed Ilopango to the Bahamas to air drop monies. On his return trip (June 21) Guirrola arrived with his passengers Alejandro Urbizu & Patricia Bernal. In 1988 Urbizu was arrested in the US in a Cocaine conspiracy case. In 1985 Guirrola was arrested in South Texas (Kleberg County) with 5 and 1/2 million dollars cash, which he had picked up in Los Angeles, California. (U.S. Customs in Dallas/ Ft. Worth had case on him.)
June 18, 1986, DEA 6 on Air Intelligence, GFTG- 86-9999; El Salvador.
June 27 & 28, 1986, US Lt. Col. Albert Adame spoke with US Ambassador Edwin Corr re: Narcotics.
In a July 26, 1986 report to the Congress, on contra-related narcotics allegation, The State Department described the Frogman CASE as follows, "This case gets it's nickname from swimmers who brought cocaine ashore in San Francisco on a Colombian vessel." It focused on a major Colombian cocaine smuggler, ALVARO CARVAJAL-MINOTA, who supplied a number of west coast smugglers. It was further alleged that Nicaraguan Contra, Horacio Pererita, was subsequently convicted on drug charges in Costa Rica and sentenced to 12 years imprisonment. Two other members of the organization were identified as Nicaraguans Carlos Cabezas & Julio Zavala. They were among the jailed West Coast traffickers and convicted of receiving drugs from Carvajal. They claimed long after their convictions, that they had delivered sums of monies to Contra resistance groups in Costa Rica.
July 28, 1986, I Met with CIA agents Don Richardson, Janice Elmore and Lt. Col. Adame in El Salvador.
July 29, 1986, I Met with Don Richardson and Robert Chavez at the US Embassy in El Salvador.
August 03,1986, Ramiro Guerra, Lt. Col. A. Adame, Dr. Hector Regalado (Dr. Death, who claimed to have shot Archbishop Romero) and myself went out on patrol in El Salvador.
In Aug. 1986, The Kerry Committee requested information on the Contra pilots from the DEA. The Department Of Justice flatly refused to give up any information.
Aug. 15, 1986, I spoke to CIA (Chief of Station) Jack McCavett and Don Richardson; El Salvador; Re: Fernando Canelas Sanez from Florida.
Aug. 18, 1986, I received $45,000.00 in cash from CIA Chief of Station (CIA), Jack McKavett for the purchase of vehicles for the DEA El Salvador Narcotic Task Force.
Aug. 28, 1986, I had a meeting with El Salvador US Ambassador, Edwin Corr, in regards to Wally Grasheim, Pete's Place and Carlos Amador (3:00 p.m.)
Oscar Alvarado-Lara "a.k.a." El Negro Alvarado (CIA asset and Contra pilot) was mentioned in 3 DEA files. On June 11, 1986, Alvarado transported 27 illegal Cubans to El Salvador Ilopango, where they were then smuggled into Guatemala. On Sept. 28, 1987, Alvarado picked up CIA officer Randy Capister in Puerto Barrios Guatemala after a joint DEA, CIA and Guatemala Military (G-2) operation. Several Mexicans and Colombians were murdered and raped. This was supported by the CIA. DEA File TG-86-0005.
1986, DEA El Salvador, initiated a file on Walter L. Grasheim (TG-87-0003). He is mentioned in several DEA, FBI and U.S Customs files. This DEA file is at The National Archives in The Iran-Contra file in Washington D.C (bulky # 2316). Also see attached Top Secret/Declassified Record of Interview on Mr. Grasheim, by the Office of Independent Counsel, dated Jan. 03, 1991.
Sept. 01, 1986, at approximately 5:00pm, I received a phone call in Guatemala from (C.I) Ramiro Guerra, Re: Raid at Wally's house in El Salvador Wally's plane (N-246-J).
On September 01, 1986, Walter Grasheim (a civilian) residence in El Salvador was searched by the DEA Task Force. Found at the residence was an arsenal of US military munitions, (allegedly for a Contra military shipment). Found were cases of C-4 explosives, grenades, ammunition, sniper rifles, M-16's, helicopter helmets and knives. Also found were files of payment to Salvadoran Military Officials (trips to New York City). Found at his residence were radios and license plates belonging to the US Embassy. We also found an M16 weapon belonging to the US Mil-Group Commander, Col. Steel. Prior to the search, I went to every department of the U.S. Embassy and asked if this individual worked in any way shape or form with the embassy. Every head of the departments denied that he worked for them. A pound of marijuana and marijuana plants growing in the back yard, were also found.
Sept. 02, 1986, I departed Guatemala on Taca Airlines @ 7:30a.m to El Salvador.
Sept. 26, 1986, Meeting with Col. Steel Re: Mr. Grasheim (Col. Steel admitted that he had given an M-16 to Grasheim) and CIA George W. Also talked to Don Richardson (CIA) re: Ramiro Guerra. Talked to Col. Adame Re: CIA George.
October 03, 1986, Spoke to DEA Panama re: Mr. Grasheim. Was advised to be careful.
October 15, 1986, Asst. Atty. Gen. Mark Richard testified before the Kerry Committee, that he had attended a meeting with 20 to 25 officials and that the DEA did not want to provide any of the information the committee had requested on the Contra involvement in drug trafficking.
October 21, 1986, I send a Telex/cable to Washington D.C on the Contras.
October 22, 1986 talked to El Salvador Re: Grasheim.
October 23, 1986, HK-1960P Honduras. 1,000 kilos of cocaine. DEA- 6 was written on this case.
October 29, 1986 Talked to DEA HQS (John Martch) re Contras & Grasheim.
October 30, 1986, Talked to Salvadoran Gen. Blandon re: to Mr. Grasheim.
Nov. 07, 1986, Talked to John Martch 202-786-4356 and Azzam-633-1049; Home: 301-262-1007. (Contras).
Nov. 13, 1986, I Met with Ambassador Corr u/2:00pm re: Mr. Grasheim. (He stated, "let the chips fall where they may." Met w/ Lt. Col. Adame.
November 14, 1986, Met with Salvadoran Col. Villa Marona re: Mr. Grasheim. He advised that the U.S Embassy had approved for Grasheim to work at Ilopango.
On January 20, 1987, Joel Brinkley (special to the New York Times) reported. "Contra Arms Crew said To Smuggle Drugs" The 3rd secret had surfaced. Brinkley wrote: "Fed. Drug investigators uncovered evidence last fall that the American flight crews which covertly carried arms to the Nicaraguan rebels were smuggling cocaine and other drugs on their return trips back to the US. Administration Officials said today that when the crew members, based in El Salvador, learned that DEA agents were investigating their activities, one of them warned that they had White House protection. The Times then quoted an anonymous US official who said the crew member's warnings which came after DEA searched his San Salvador house for drugs, caused 'quite a stir' at Ilopango."
Feb. 09, 1987, I had meeting with Lt. Col. Adame and Elmore re: major argument with DEA HQS I.A. Lourdez Border. They had just arrived in Guatemala for a two-day fact finding tour of El Salvador.
Feb.10, 1987, I met with U.S. Ambassador Corr (Salvador) re DEA HQS Intel. Analyst Lourdez Border and Doug (last name unknown) - both were rookies. In two days in El Salvador, they determined that there was no contra involvement in drug trafficking.
February 27. 1987, I spoke to Mike Alston, DEA Miami, RE: Contra pilots John Hall; Bruce Jones' airstrip in Costa Rica, Colombian Luis Rodriguez; Mr. Shrimp-Ocean Hunter Costa Rica > to Miami. Contra Operation from Central American to U.S.
March 03, 1987, met with Janis Elmore (CIA) from 9:00pm till 12:00
March 30, 1987, I invited U.S. Customs Agent Richard Rivera to El Salvador in an attempt to trace ammunitions and weapons found in Mr.Grasheim's residence. It's alleged that The Pentagon put a stop on his trace. (They were never able to trace the items).
April 01, 1987, Bob Stia, Walter (pilot) Morales and myself flew to El Salvador. Met with two CIA agents who advised us that we could no longer utilize Murga because he was now working with them).
April 07,08,09, 1987, I met with John Martch in Guatemala Re: Contras and OPR.
Sept. 27, 1987, Central American CIA agent, Randy Capister, the Guatemala military (G-2) and myself, seized over 2,404 kilos of cocaine from a Guatemalan Congressman, Carlos Ramiro Garcia de Paz and the Medellin cartel (biggest cocaine seizure in Central America and top five ever). However, several individuals were murdered and raped on said operation. CIA agent and myself saw the individuals being interrogated. The Congressman was never arrested or charged.
October 22, 1987, I received a call from DEA HQS Everett Johnson, not to close Contra files because some committee was requesting file. If you have an open file, you do not have access to the files under Freedom of Information Act.
Aug. 30, 1988, Received intelligence from (Guido Del Prado) at the U.S. Embassy, El Salvador re: Carlos Armando Llemus-Herrera (Contra pilot).
Oct. 27, 1988, Received letter from "Bill," Regional Security Officer at the Embassy in El Salvador re: Corruption on US ambassador Corr and del Prado.
Dec. 03, 1988, DEA seized 356 kilos of cocaine in Tiquisate, Guatemala (DEA # TG-89-0002; Hector Sanchez). Several Colombians were murdered on said operation and condoned by the DEA and CIA. I have pictures of individuals that were murdered in said case. The target was on Gregorio Valdez (CIA asset) of The Guatemala Piper Co. At that time, all air operations for the CIA and DEA flew out of Piper.
Aug. 24, 1989, Because of my information, the U.S. Embassy canceled Guatemalan Military, Lt. Col. Hugo Francisco Moran-Carranza, (Head of Interpol and Corruption) U.S. visa. He was documented as a drug trafficker and as a corrupt Guatemalan Official. He was on his way to a U.S. War College for one year, invited by the CIA.
Feb. 21, 1990, I send a telex-cable to DEA HQS Re: Moran's plan to assassinate me.
Between Aug. 1989 and March 06, 1990, Col. Moran had initiated the plan to assassinate me in El Salvador and blame it on the guerrillas. On March 06, 1990, I traveled to Houston to deliver an undercover audio tape on my assassination. The Houston DEA S.A Mark Murtha (DEA File M3-90-0053) had an informant into Lt. Col. Moran.
Feb. 24, 1990, I moved my family back home because DEA could not make a decision.
March 15, 1990, After 6 months knowing about the assassination plan, DEA transferred me out to San Diego, California for 6months.
April 05, 1990, an illegal search was conducted at my residence in Guatemala by Guatemala DEA agents Tuffy Von Briensen, Larry Hollifield and Guatemalan Foreign Service National, Marco Gonzales in Guatemala (No search warrant). DEA HQS agreed that it had been an illegal search requested by OPR S/I Tony Recevuto. (OPR file PR-TG-90-0068) On Sept. 16, 1991, a questionnaire was faxed to me in regards to the illegal search. (see attached)
April 11, 1991, in an undercover capacity, Carlos Cabezas's wife sold me 5 kilos of cocaine in San Francisco. (DEA # R3-91-0036; Milagro Rodriguez)
On April 16, 1991, I met with Carlos Cabezas at the DEA Office in San Francisco. He stated to me that Zavala and himself were informants for the FBI in San Francisco at the time his wife delivered the cocaine. Alvaro Carbajal had supplied the 5 kilos of cocaine. (There is an undercover audio tape available as evidence) Mr. Cabezas gave me his undercover business card. It was identified as "The California Company" at 3519-Mission St., San Francisco, CA 94110 REAL ESTATE & INVESTMENTS Carlos A. Cabezas, Sales Associate Pager: 371-7108 Fax: (415) 647-0918; Res: (415 991-3104; Bus: (415) 647-8014.
May 10, 1990, DEA HQS OPR S/I Tony Recevuto returned to Guatemala and requested the U.S. Ambassador, to please grant Lt. Col. Hugo Moran-Carranza a US Visa, so that he could testify before the BCCI investigation in Miami. The ambassador could not understand why anyone, for any reason would request a US Visa for an individual who had planned the assassination of a US drug agent.
May 27, 1990, I was ordered to return back to Guatemala to pack my household goods. The threat was still very real for me. On June 01, 1990, I departed Guatemala for the last time. On June 05, 1990, another American was killed by the Guatemalan Military. Before the Kerry Committee
The CIA acknowledged drugs in a statement by Central American Task Force Chief Alan Fiers who testified: "with respect to (drug trafficking) by the Resistance Forces...It is not a couple of people. It is a lot of people."
The DEA has always stated that my reports were unfounded, but they later recanted. DEA Assistant Administrator, David Westrate stated of the Nicaraguan War: "It is true that people on both sides of the equation (in the Nicaraguan War) were drug traffickers, and a couple of them were pretty significant."
In a Sept. 20-26, 1989, series of debriefings and in subsequent debriefing on Feb. 13, 1990, by DEA agents in Los Angeles, Lawrence Victor Harrison, an American-born electronics specialist who had worked in Mexico and had been involved with the leading figures in the Mexican drug cartel, was interviewed. He testified that he had been present when two of the partners of Matta-Ballesteros and Rafael Caro-Quintero, met with American pilots working out of Ilopango air base in El Salvador, providing arms to the Contras. The purpose of the meeting was to work out drug deals.
Several days earlier, on Feb. 09, 1990, Harrison had told DEA interrogators that Nicaraguan Contras were being trained at a ranch in Vera Cruz, owned by Rafael Caro Quintero. It was at Quintero's Guadalajara ranch that DEA Agent Kiki Camarena, and his pilot were interrogated, tortured and buried alive.
January 23, 1991, letter to Mr. William M. Baker, Asst. Director of Criminal Investigative Division, FBI; from Lawrence E. Walsh and Mike Foster, requesting several FBI files on Walter L. Grasheim. (see attached)
January 30, 1991, letter to DEA Ronald Caffrey, Deputy Asst. Administrator for Operations at DEA from Craig A. Guillen, Associate Counsel of the Office of Independent Counsel; requesting Walter L. Grasheim reports. (see attached)
In 1991, a DEA General File was opened on an Oliver North in Washington D.C. (GFGD-91-9139) "smuggling weapons into the Philippines with known drug traffickers."
In 1991, before I departed the DEA, I met with FBI agent Mike Foster, investigator for The Office of Independent Counsel on Iran-Contra, where I gave him detailed information of the Contras' involvement in drugs.
October, 1994, The Washington Post reported that former Government Officials, including the DEA, CIA, State Department, US Customs and White House officials were quoted as saying that Lt. Col. Oliver North did not advise them of his knowledge that the Contras were involved in drug trafficking.
In 1997, I joined DEA SA Richard Horn in a federal class action suit against the CIA. The suit is against the CIA and other federal agencies for spying on several DEA agents and other unnamed DEA employees and their families. United States District Court for The District of Columbia; Richard Horn vs. Warren Christopher, Civil Action No. 1:96CV02120 (HHG) January 30, 1994.
This is a list of DEA case file and names of individuals that may help support my allegations.
GFTG-86-9145, GFTG-87-9145 El Salvador
GFTG-86-9999, GFTG-87-9999, Air Intelligence
TG-87-0003, Walter L. Grasheim (Salvador case)
TG-86-0001, Leonel Guitan-Guitan
DEA Informants STG-86-0006 and STG-81-0013
US Ambassador Edwin Corr
Janis Elmore (CIA 1986 through 1989). I reported to her when in El Salvador.
Don Richardson ( CIA & Political Officer in El Salvador 1986,87). I reported to him in El Salvador.
Felix Vargas (CIA El Salvador 1986, 87)
Col. James Steel ( Mil-Group Commander El Salvador).
U.S. Lt. Col. Alberto Adame (Under Steel)
Lupita Vega (the only Salvadoran which was cleared for "Top Secret") worked in the Milgroup in El Salvador.
Felix Rodriguez (CIA at Ilopango hanger 4 & 5)
Jack McCavett (CIA Chief of Station in El Salvador).
CIA George Witter in El Salvador. He asked for US visa on drug trafficker Carlos Alberto Amador.
CIA Randy Capister (covert operation in Central America 1985 t090). Involved in several atrocities.
CIA Manuel Brand (retired Cuban-American) Guatemala
State Department (De Luoie) El Salvador
State Department RSO Bill Rouche El Salvador
State Dept. Official Del Prado (El Salvador)
DEA John Martsh (DEA HQS)
DEA Jack O'Conner (DEA HQS)
DEA HQS Agents AZZAM & Frank Torello (retired) involved in Contra ops in Europe
Salvadoran General Bustillo (retired in Florida)
US Custom Richard Rivera and Philip Newton
DEA Sandy Gonzales (Costa Rica)
Lincoln Benedicto-Honduras US Embassy-Consul General April 30, 1986. Re: Matta-Ballesteros
Some people have asked, "Why I am doing this? I reply, "That a long time ago I took an oath to protect The Constitution of the United States and its citizens". In reality, it has cost me so much to become a complete human being, that I've lost my family. In 1995, I made a pilgrimage to the Vietnam Wall, where I renounced my Bronze Star in protest of the atrocities my government had committed in Central America. I have now become a veteran of my third, and perhaps most dangerous war --- a war against the criminals within my own Government. Heads have to roll for those who are responsible and still employed by the government. They will be the first targets in an effective drug strategy. If not, we will continue to have groups of individuals who will be beyond any investigation, who will manipulate the press, judges and members of our Congress, and still be known in our government as those who are above the law.
submitted by shylock92008 to NarcoFootage [link] [comments]


2020.11.06 21:08 Rockafellor “When in Rome”; ch. 1: “Cauchy”

Join Avery D'Arc, Space Orc, as he wrestles with the mysteries of the universe, Cat-girls with no conception of personal space, and the slings and arrows of outrageous vacation destinations.
- - - - -
Cauchy”: Space Orcs might be the most rawly impressive species in the known galaxies, but it turns out that they're not the most confounding when Billie and Avery set out to investigate the mysterious appearance of a vast artificial complex (just one of many). Spanning two light years, its main mass is empty and seems to have no effect on spacetime around it.
Its otherwise bare surface isn't quite entirely bare though, with a ten million mile building standing out as a beacon-like calling card for all and sundry. As if this weren't enough, the interior proves increasingly more bizarre, making the exterior seem merely a little outsized by contrast. At the heart of the matter is a being more outlandish than they'd ever expected, and all because of what will never happen, ensuring that what wasn't remains so.
Cauchy” is the first chapter in the story arc “When in Rome,” which is in turn the third story in a series (“Tell me more about this Earth-thing”).



“Lands' End, Point Omega, call it what you will, it reeks of death,” the Engram intoned.
Ryo-ohki twitched in her sleep, dreaming of an alien planet made of pure carrot, fresh greens sprouting all over the surface, and cool springs and brooks abounding and redolent with sweet, carrot-juicy goodness.
“Silent halls of marble, but impenetrable to all scanners, and resistant to all attempts to so much as scratch them for samples,” it went on, pausing as if to ensure that the significance sank in.
“So, y'all are talkin' a ghost town here?” Avery clarified.
The Engram paused further, considering the Deathworlder's question.
“Ghosts?” it asked, unable to come up with any better reply.
For all that the Deathworlder's language inexplicably matched Audible Galactic Common, there were inevitably some disjoints. Billie had learned that very quickly, and it wasn't just food and local planetary lifeforms and astrography, nor yet their curious deafness to their own minor regional variations (they called them languages, and claimed not to understand one another). Deathworlders had words for weather, pursuits of pleasure, so many methods of warfare… things that rarely had more than the merest tangential similarity to anything cultured and civilized, and this persisted in every “language” on the planet!
“Non-physical continuations of once-living physical beings,” Billie stepped in.
“Of course,” the Engram nodded, “a common enough metamorphic stage for–”
“They dead,” Avery interrupted.
“Then I'm afraid that I don't understand.”
Billie spent the next hour trying to explain primitive Deathworlder superstitions before the Engram gave up, more confused than ever.
“So, the message finally self-destructed?”
“That's not how they work,” ze replied, dodging nimbly around him and fending off his hands as ze made zer way to the food-o-matic, “they're fully integrated archailects1 composed of refracted micronodes for ephemeral interactions.”
“Oh! So... it self-destructed?”
Ze arched zer brow and ignored him as ze withdrew zer half-melted coffee ice cream and mandarin orange sorbet, balancing the slice of gingerbread very carefully and bumping him out of the way with zer hip. The gingerbread was dark and heavy with rum, rich with molasses, allspice, and bits of fruit, and quite distracting to the nose.
“You really like that stuff, huh?” he teased.
“You should too, you know. I find that it 'puts me in the mood,' in case you hadn't noticed.”
“Best stuff in the world, like I always say. Did I ask? No sirree, not me! You sure you got enough there? Lemme go get you some more, you look famished.”


...Spirits and Demons: beware!2 Avery sang aloud, nasal and off-key.
His heart was light and the tune jaunty. All was good with the world.
Billie slapped his arm lightly, half in jest, half soberly.
“OK, OK. But you still ain't said: which one of us is Spencer and which is Tracy?”
“You do remember my 'frog-tongue,' hmm...?”
A smile glued itself to his face as he lost himself for a moment.
“Care to see it again?”
His attention snapped back to the present as the tip of zer tongue slid gently across zer lips, arcing upward to reach zer nose, then slid seductively down and across zer chest.
The tweaks to a Genomorph's body took some time to affect, from hours for minor biochemistry to a few days for major anatomical shifts, and could only come about by horizontal gene transfer. They also took a bit of a toll in caloric needs, nutrition, and even some degree of subconscious acuity while being brought online. Zer body accounted for environmental needs automatically, but ze could also intentionally call up modifications that zer genetic library had previous exposure to.
“I'll be good,” he promised.
Sometimes zer modifications served no immediate practical need, but this 'frog-tongue ' – as Avery had once dubbed it – served several uses, and it was one modification that ze was glad to keep.
Coming out of Planck-BEC transit, they saw what they'd already expected, but it was still difficult to accept.
A featureless surface fully a light year in radius, slightly rounded along the edge and tapering like an inverted chocolate kiss beneath.
Featureless, that is, except for a single structure at the center of the flat face.
A rococo monstrosity ten million miles in each direction, with what could only be described as a garden world with a like footprint laid out before what was undoubtedly its front façade. Sensors showed a Class-M atmosphere along the disc face, along with a one-gee field, solar light beaming into existence in all downward directions from its Kármán line.
Following the beautifully curving ocean-river to either side, one's eyes were naturally drawn to a very clear landing area at what amounted to its doorstep.
Their descent was unhindered and uneventful.
For all of the pomp of the structure's exterior, its interior – or at least what might be called its foyer, whatever its physical extent – was that of a typical space station. Somewhat more convivial, and certainly less business-like, but still easily recognizable as what one might expect of a rich eccentric with an entire planet's resources to throw at their vestibule. Literally a world's resources – that entire world, physically – if you poured it all into an enormous puff-pastry and added intergalactic tech to solve the engineering issues.
And this was just one of the many identical installations that had simply appeared across the galaxies and voids. They had shown up simultaneously, some balancing on black holes' ergospheres, a few sitting directly in place and pierced through by quasars' jets, quite a few buried deep within thick nebulae, and every single one neither affected by nor affecting their surrounding medium.
Avery took a long look across the vast open area, the city-sized water features and rest areas, then back at their all terrain mobile shelter.
“We're gonna need a bigger boat.”
No sooner had he said this than they noticed an unobtrusive area, displaying numerous models of vehicles, but all clearly top of the line. Above the top of the line, from what he could see of Billie's reactions.
All were parked pointing inward, at least those that one could see or infer to have directionality to them.
All were open to anyone who might come along.
“What do you think?” he asked.
Billie simply tilted zer head down and pulled zer neck back, looking up at him with zer brow knitting in clear communication that ze thought that he had finally lost the last of whatever he'd had that passed for Deathworlder sanity.
Then the air between them and the courtesy suite lit up with a soft lavender glow, calm ochre strips marching away at a sedate pace.
In the end, they selected one that resembled a three-legged ice-skating wading pool. Every ship was the height of luxury, food and drink – curious fruit juices, tantalizing pastries, and strange meats of elusive textures and flavors – were brought to them by various services objects (or possibly creatures; they really couldn't tell) in each that they boarded, but this one was the least outlandish-looking of the lot. After the first servitor pair had sought to massage them, and Billie had slapped them soundly for it, further overtures remained constrained to silent tour guides and wait-staff.
The ship traveled far but fast. There was no way to tell their speed, seeming breakneck and crawling at the same time. Sizes and distances were deceptive, and no two things offered a consistent gauge.
At last it came to rest at the opening of a hallway. A hallway of reasonable size letting in to a brass wall without other marks for as far as they could see.
It felt almost claustrophobic in contrast with the journey thence.
They proceeded forward, now on foot, though fed and rested, Ryo-ohki alternating between flouncing along the hall ahead of them and bounding back again.
With nothing more to look at, they became intimately familiar with the walls, ceiling, and floor along the monotonous path. A bland beige to the sides, slightly darker below, slightly lighter above, and hints of varicolored mood-lighting to the air at times. No clear turns were apparent, though every so often they would look ahead or behind and find that the hall now showed some gentle curve to the side, or an incline or downward slope.
They had walked for hours.
Dank and now ill-lit, the air having grown clammy and close, the walls having slowly shifted from finished and seamless metallo-ceramic polymer to crumbling mortar and decaying stones, the hallway had come to an end.
They had seen the exit for a while before reaching it, though it seemed to near them only in jumps.
Now that they had exited, they stood outside of a cave mouth, a simple flat-bottomed boat sitting untended not twenty feet away, a barge-like coracle, no oars nor sails nor rudder. The beach to either side felt soft and pliant, a continuous surface rather than sand, though dully reflective as if of lightly brushed metal, and stretching off into the distance to grow dim and blurred in the twilight and mist.
“Any chance I could talk you into that dolphin blow-hole thing, later?” Avery asked lightly, eyeing the shallow water of a nearby cove.
Billie looked at him, then the cove, and back again, waiting for him to focus on the moment.
He wiggled his eyebrows in an exaggerated fashion, hoping to get a laugh out of zer.
“Yes, that sounds like a terrific idea! Absolutely the most appropriate possible course of action at this time,” ze replied, shaking zer head in equal but mild parts amusement and frustration, and muttering “Maybe later, you sex-crazed Deathworlder.”
Seeing no other option suggest itself, they chose the obvious, the ship accelerating moderately as soon as they'd boarded and heading toward the strait at the far side of the water, raising barely a ripple over the slow swells.
As they made some distance from the beach, the mist thinned, first showing clear the vast and irregular blocks that thrust out from the surface, seeming convex and concave in turns with their angles and curves holding no sure and steady form, and then permitting the looming figures themselves to slowly become apparent along the horizon to the sides.
Cyclopean statues, miles-tall each, their bodies twisting and contorted, some with long and vicious tails in mid-lash, others bearing tentacles depending from their mouths, still others indiscernible but yet giving the impression of deep thought slowed to a standstill. A pale and spectral light limned their skins wan and pallid, leaving a sense of subliminal and oily patterns writhing whenever one wasn't looking.
It didn't help lighten the mood any that Avery could almost hear something baying far ahead of them.


After what might arguably have been only a few miles, the mist closed in once more, sounds muffled and seeming to come from any distance and no direction.
This continued for perhaps ten more minutes before the ship grounded itself.
“Hello, hello, hello-o!”
Avery turned from helping Billie off, stepping out of zer way so that they could now both see the being of smokeless fire that stood before them, chipper and bouncing on its heels as if to greet them warmly.
“Ahh, I am so very glad to see you again, it will have been simply too long,” he said, smiling expansively, “I remembered just in time that you were due to arrive now, and so will be leaving to see you in only a few minutes.”
Avery wasn't sure which to disbelieve more, his ears or his eyes.
Not many Humans had made it off of Earth, or glowed, for that matter – aside from a few hedonists seeking the exotic pleasures and relaxations of alien worlds and culture, there just wasn't much out here to appeal to anyone but a few scientists.
Ryo-ohki's ears perked as she bobbed her head down, then up, repeating this a few times before leaping all around their host, who immediately produced a large carrot from nowhere.
“You may call me Cauchy, and I do apologize for the charade. All of the entry was just theater for your benefit, to give you a sense of accomplishment and some ambiance. Terribly important, ambiance. And a sense of accomplishment. Can't get anywhere without that. Or ambiance, come to think of it.”
Avery leaned in to Billie and whispered behind his hand “Battier than a belfry full of bats on a buttered bagel...”
“Billie, Avery, come. We'll eat, we'll talk, and this will all make ever so much more sense. Except for the bits that won't, of course.”
Dreamlike, sudden and without transition, while yet offering no psychological surprise, as if this were what one would expect had they given it any thought, they were ensconced within a private dining area of comfortable size laid out with cushions all around. Whole lamb tenderloins wrapped in bacon with a mushroom and chestnut chutney between them (hints of anchovy and capers clearly present in the Dijon vinaigrette aroma), and all beneath an outer layer of pancetta sat before each of them on silver platters that hovered still in the air, as did the wine, the crab bisque with malted onion bread, roasted potatoes and toppings, bowls of honeyed lemon yogurt, plates of fig and date pastries, and indeed the entire service. All were engaged thus but for Ryo-ohki, at least, who lay in a pillowed cocoon of lettuce and turnip greens with a huge mixed salad before her, multiple vegetable juices clearly puddled throughout.
They weren't hungry at all – hadn't been since they were last on Billie's ship, in fact – but they all found that they had room to eat.
At a slight remove, neither too near nor too distant, a small assembly of animals played chamber music, its light sounds accompanied by several dancers and a handful of simple stage props.
Peering closer, Avery grew certain that the trees and houses in the background were no props.
“This isn't Yggdrasil, after all,” Cauchy smiled.
“What's Yggdrasil?”
Cauchy smiled again, “Enigmatic.”
“Nano-aether? Some sort of utility fog?” Billie asked abruptly, waving zer hand at the meal.
“No, not that way” Cauchy replied, “quite literally nano-aether in that what you would call Planck-epsilon-bots form and re-form to purpose, and predictively, out of the aetherial substrate of reality, writing bespoke local physical laws as needed and separately endowing resulting materials with whatever properties are called for. You could say that it's easier than doing it myself, but technically it's more complicated in fact, though only in the same sense as epsilon-sub-null3 is meaningfully larger than epsilon-sub-epsilon.”
Avery glanced to Billie, who only shook zer head.
Ze was clueless as to what this mysterious Genomorph was talking about, and greatly relieved that Avery was showing patience with zer practically private conversation. Still and all though, it was unspeakably gauche to dive into conversation in one's homeworld language when around other species without first ensuring that they too understood it or possessed a translator.
Considering all of this, ze cast about. The food, all of the familiar things of home, lacked luster. The raktajino a flavorless dishwater to match its tepid state, the hasperat bland and seeming almost as if made of mashed avocado and boiled spinach and crème fraîche in unseasoned roux crêpes, and the iguana-chicken tasted like steamed tofu.
Ze had no idea of how Avery was managing to make his way through any of it.
At least Ryo-ohki seemed happy with her greens.
“Home is where the heart is, some say,” Cauchy murmured.
Ze looked up at this, but ze only gestured to zer food again.
Sighing, ze nodded and returned to zer plates, only to find vichyssoise with brown bread rarebit, a perfectly seared bacon cheeseburger with roasted tomatoes and bursting with grease, chipped potatoes, Caesar salad, a spiced treacle pudding with custard and pear – and coffee. Looking up again, ze saw that Avery's food had changed as well, now bearing all of the familiar hallmarks of deathworld cuisine.
“The nano-aether,” Cauchy explained, seeing zer surprise.
“Is it a new development?” ze asked.
“Not yet, no,” ze replied.
“I don't mean to be rude or nothing, but what's a Human doing way out here, anyway?” Avery asked.
More surprised by this than by anything else so far, Billie looked around quickly. Surely they were the only ones to have come here recently, and just as surely no other Human had been here before, much less left behind.
“Oh, investigating the mysterious, of course.”
“And how'd you get here?”
“I was already here, have always will be – that's why you are now, after all,” Cauchy replied.
“Where's this other Human?” Billie interjected nervously. Ze'd grown accustomed to their ways, to an extent, but they were wildly unpredictable, and the circumstances here were far from ordinary.
“What other Human?” Avery replied, looking around himself, now.
“The one that you're talking about, dear.”
“What? I was just talking with Cauchy, here.”
“Yes. About a Human.”
His eyes narrowed as he tried to work out where ze was going with this.
Ze continued to stare at him levelly while waiting for him to simply answer zer.
It was Cauchy who brokered the détente.
“He means me, Billie. I am a Ljósálf4, and our physical appearance varies with the psyche of the observer. To you, I am a Genomorph; to him, a Human. And no, I don't speak any language5, which is why you're each able to understand me respectively – and before you ask, I can't read your mind, I only knew because it's what you were going to ask, though you won't now, but it's just as true, so the paradox resolves as a subjunctive tautology – a sort of Nash Equilibrium cum Feynman diagram.”
Needless to say, this sparked some rather confusing conversation. For one thing, it turned out that Ljósálfar tour worlds, which Cauchy insisted were “world-ponds,” as if they were museums, precious and fleeting moments pinned in place like flies in amber.
“And our universe is one of them?” Billie asked, trying to feel zer way through what Cauchy was saying.
“Yes.”
“And these other universes–”
“World-ponds. Or worlds, if you wish.”
“They're worlds, but not in this universe.”
“Right.”
“And this universe is a world.”
“Exactly.”
“But these other worlds aren't universes.”
“Well... some of them are. An infinite number of them, really. Beth two of them, if you really want to split hairs.”
“And all of these universes aren't a multiverse.”
“Not at all, just all part of the universe as a whole, really.”
“So they're all just worlds, as far as universes and worlds go.”
“To be fair, so are the worlds. They're worlds too. And some have universes in them.”
“An infinite number of worlds? Beth two of them, if I really wanted to split hairs?”
“Now you have it!”
Ze had no idea what ze had, but it was nice to have it.
Like nailing down mud, Avery would say.
“You know what they say,” Cauchy countered, apropos of nothing, “all roads lead to Ljósálfheimr. Isn't that right, Ryo-ohki, my little Beth Node6? Yes it is! Yes! And you know just what I'm talking about, now don't you? Ohh, yes you do!”
The cabbit purred as her leg thumped in time with his scratching her head and neck, and chucking her beneath her chin with his fingertips.
“Where's Ljósálfheimr?” Avery asked.
“Well-l-l, after normalizing your non-orientable monadic space – co-dimension7 three, you might say, but that would be telling,” Cauchy winked, “– and accounting for the effective cosmic scalar transform, zeta function notwithstanding...” he continued, sticking a finger into his mouth, then holding it aloft for a moment, “round about fifty billion light years thataway,” he said, crossing his arms, one finger pointing vaguely up and to the side, the other hand curled halfway around backward, “You could then add a little over one point eight million miles west-northwest, plus quite a bit of a ways extra-up and just a touch semi-kata in a Hausdorff-fractal sense. Or not, that's your call.
“Look, I called you here today... do you know, I've always wanted to say that!
“I called you here today to discuss a matter of great importance.”
Here he looked around, as if seeing if anyone were eavesdropping.
Softly, the entertainers' music faded away, replaced by sourceless expository music drifting downward from the very air above them in general and gradually becoming focused from some point between them all.
“I'm going to tell you a story, and in this story, time isn't, it's just being,” he began, tapping the bridge of his nose, “The Greys go as fast as possible to stay in one place, a question of indeterminacy, you see, a bit like the Red Queen8, though I really don't think that you'd like her one bit. I know I don't, I don't mind telling you.
“Meanwhile, Ásgarðr is set to position-only, making speed irrelevant – not negated or uncertain, mind; movement is possible, but that would cause 'problems,' and I won't be clarifying that phrasing. Location is treated as a property of matter, assigned by quantum hand-waving, and can be manipulated and designated; it's what keeps Ásgarðr in place and shielded, after all.
“If we assume some upper speed limit for ships – or buildings, or cities, or world-ponds – then this explains the observed speeds that one would expect of Kardashёv type two-plus technology to be able to exceed. This isn't necessary, if such speeds are permitted to occur, but permitting higher speeds would also beg the question of larger networks of world-ponds forming more solid groups or empires.
“Now tell me, why do you suppose it is that they don't, hmm? What if, let's say – and just for fun, of course – what if there were some property of spacetime that doesn't prohibit that, it just makes it an Incredibly Bad Idea to exceed some approximate boundary speed? For example, if you go less than speed X, you're fine. Go at speeds in a certain higher range, and you'll blow things to kingdom come. Your ship, and likely everything within a thousand miles, for example. Go above that range though, and you're looking at shattering the foundations of reality. Not a black hole, as such – more like... more like reaching a resonant frequency in a two-dimensional world set between glass plates, or no, a two-dimensional world that is a glass plate, one that's right smack up against other such worlds: rub those just right, the panes shatter, and everything melts into madness, and reality becomes a distorted version of itself, along with local fluctuations of physical laws that might well vary over time as well. This melting and merging of realities isn't a probability-superposition-thing, just a blurry wobbly thing of literal physical speed and location in a spatiotemporally infinite rule-based random universe; it all has to do with which world you're in at any given moment, and being in too many of them over the course of too few moments, and so it reaches a sort of Hagedorn temperature, except that instead of energy density, it's the informational entropy of the location property, which in a Shannon sense is somewhat equivalent I suppose, not to mention the silly buggers it plays with an imaginary Doppler shift...
“But not to worry, this won't be a problem.”
They sat there dazed for a moment.
“Then why are you telling us all of this?” Billie asked, “And you do realize that we have no idea who or what all of these things are, don't you?”
“No, no, no. And yes, of course. But both of these are why it won't be: because it did, or else we wouldn't be here now, because you weren't anymore, or else you would have been, and we wouldn't, but now you are because you will be were. You see? Reality never was anyway, since we wouldn't be here if it were, except that we are, so there it is. Bit of a sticky wicket, I know.”
“But why so many of these... this place?”
“Well, I had to be sure that I got your attention, now didn't I?”
Having wound down, he focused on a fingernail for a moment, then began to chew at it.
“So, you're trying to warn us to warn them not to play with higher speeds?” Avery asked, beginning to boil it down.
“Oh, quite the contrary: what will be, always was. Now it's just a question of not doing what you're going to do, and you haven't, so you won't. I find that what isn't happening is always far more fascinating to watch than what is, don't you agree?
“Now, aside from catching up to do, time is short, but we have plenty of it. So, what did you want to talk about?”
In the end, they left rather more confused than they'd been upon their arrival, but had apparently made an old friend, having only just then met him – or zer or it – and were eventually assured that they did indeed meet again. They actually found themselves looking forward to this, albeit with more than a little concern.


They had talked for so long that dinner had turned into an extended brunch. Billie had nibbled the most delicious ginger muffin, then a simple gingered mushroom and scallion noodle soup. Knowing better, this soon became a theme nevertheless. The ginger curried chicken had been strong, but the “palate cleansing” slices of pickled ginger understandably more so. Ze'd thrown caution to the wind after that, piling on a light ginger tea, sliced pork with ginger-rhubarb compote, salad with a ginger dressing, caramelized peaches in ginger syrup, and at last a large ginger margarita.
Yeller had chosen to sleep in the flight deck, and they'd finally managed to free the bed of Paws, and so they could now relax at last.
“Mmm, did I mention that raʔûR will be visiting? You'll finally get to meet her!”
Avery nodded uncertainly, not uncomfortable with the thought, but unsure of where ze was heading with this. The Cat-girl was one of zer best friends, and he didn't wish to misstep with this.
“And I never have shown you my spinnerets, now have I...?” ze asked coyly, sipping a sweet ginger Armagnac as they slid beneath the sheets. The bed covers were semi-sapient, designed to snuggle close and actively provide psychological cover, warmth, cooling ripples of air, massages, and hugs; Avery still wasn't quite used to them, but this spinneret thing held his full attention now.
He quirked his brow.
“Oh, nothing, just a little surprise that I was calling up before all of this began – but if you're not interested...” ze wriggled zer hips suggestively, then shrugged.
The temperature and air currents were perfect, the gravitational center set to just inches above the sleeping nest, but still a ginger candle burned nearby, adding to the close of zer day. It would be days before the air cleared of it, and they'd both be sore and exhausted afterward, but it would be worth it, and right now ze had only one thing on zer mind anyway.
Their report would take some time to compose. Detailing it all would be straightforward enough, but supplying coherent interpretations of it all would likely prove itself a challenge.
For now, they simply settled for a good, long rest – first things first, though, of course; after all, one must keep one's eyes on the important things in life.


O ~~~ O

Footnotes:



1 Archailect: See Orion's Arm (URL below) for greater detail, ▐► https://www.orionsarm.com/eg-topic/492d76d2f173e
2 Demons and Witches: From the theme song of “Ghost Busters ”, the 1975 Filmation live action Scooby-wannabe (not its 1986 incarnation, nor the unrelated Columbia franchise). ▐► https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lBZCUiR7Iq8&list=PLIl2eWOVM20HMp85S3KZFgftJRgwStzIv
3 Epsilon null: Here, Cauchy is referring to the surreal divisions of infinitesimal epsilon, rather than the transfinites, or I'd have written “...meaningfully smaller...” rather than “...meaningfully larger...” – his point being that either is negligible, mathematically vanishing, but not identical.
TL;DR is essentially (and painfully inaccurate, mathematically) 1/∞; in this context, ε-sub-ε could then be likened to (1/∞)/∞, though this is where we would normally differentiate between the former denominator being aleph null and the latter combined form being more akin to aleph one or beth one (then again, normally ε^2 = 0, which would normally put paid to the whole issue were it not for surreals).
For a more in-depth coverage of epsilon (and ZFC to an extent) please see the Technical Appendix of the “Icewall ” .pdf at: ▐► https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1BG7P_sVezz8Dn5b8js_34yeAjSBhfN0v
See also “I am the Walrus ” footnote on aleph and beth numbers (essentially the transfinite complement of infinitesimal epsilons – the latter not to be confused with the poorly named transfinite epsilon) at ▐► https://archiveofourown.org/works/26951104
This footnote is a rather abbreviated and very limited explanation, but it would take up far too much space to explain it well (not to mention all of the mistakes that I'd no doubt make). Go to your favorite math site / encyclopedia, and/or search engine – or simply StackExchange, Wikipedia, Wolfram MathWorld, DavidDarlingInfo, Quora, etc. – and look into the terms {transfinite, infinitesimal, aleph number, beth number, nimber, surreal number, hyperreal number, and ZFC / Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory with AC (axiom of choice)}.
4 Ljósálf: Operating at a level at least that of the Avatars of “Charmed ” and Time Lords of “Dr. Who ”, Ljósálfar are demonstrably Powers (Appendix F “Powers and Principalities ” of WIP “I am Legion ” .pdf, Tier Two: Supers, Rank 5+: individually Kardashёv Type I-II, Classic Traveller TL 17-25) at a bare minimum. The nature of Cauchy's private universe (and Ljósálven idiosyncrasies) argues a good chance of his being a low-rank Principality (Tier Three, Rank 1-2), though probably(?) less powerful than Q, the Beyonder, or Dr. Manhattan (but presumably more powerful than Moorcock's Gods of Law and Chaos).
I am Legion ” .pdf available at ▐► https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1BG7P_sVezz8Dn5b8js_34yeAjSBhfN0v
NB: re. Principalities, cf. Qhalqhal of “Nothing's gonna change my world ” URL below (or Negent of the WIP “I am Legion ”): individually Kardashёv Type III-V, Classic Traveller TL >27 → 31+. ▐► https://archiveofourown.org/works/24380977
Ljósálven environs are perceived as whatever comforts the beholder, appropriate to circumstance. In a like manner, their physical appearance is that of whichever species is looking at them. >>> 𝐒𝐏𝐎𝐈𝐋𝐄𝐑 >>> This is much like the Vorlons of Babylon 5, though without the limiting factor of how many are looking – it was only after thinking of this (and not much later, either) that I finally watched B5, but there's never anything new under the sun, it seems. <<< 𝐄𝐍𝐃 𝐒𝐏𝐎𝐈𝐋𝐄𝐑 <<<
5 Language: In “The Space Orcs are coming, hooray, hooray! ”, we saw that all of Earth's languages are heard by intergalactics as a single language with tiny regional differences that might as well amount to no more than slight and irrelevant accents. Now we find that each species has its own language, but that they're presumably mostly or always the pulp sci-fi trope of a monoculture; one species, one language. We also see here that at least this Ljósálf (NB: yes, all of the rest of them, too) doesn't even have language at all, much less a language in particular. Curiouser and curiouser.
6 Beth Node: I'd explain this, but... spoilers. If you really insist, then you can find them (and Aleph Nodes) explained in a couple of references in the “Icewall ” .pdf and the Afterword of the “Seize the Deity ” .pdf. Once you tumble to their implications, make what you will of this Galactic world-pond.
Seize the Deity ” .pdf available at ▐► https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1BG7P_sVezz8Dn5b8js_34yeAjSBhfN0v
7 Co-dimension: There's an Easter Egg waiting there. Who might be interested, search out the term. Doctor the math. It won't take too much time, and it's “relatively ” funny.
8 Red Queen: Yes, the “Alice in Wonderland ” series. She's an example BBEG in this story's larger RPG/story meta-setting of Icewall.


= = = = =


Cauchy” is the first chapter in the story arc “When in Rome,” which is in turn the third story in a series (“Tell me more about this Earth-thing”).
When in Rome” is an ongoing story arc, with three chapters so far. The first two chapters (“Cauchy” and “Don't throw the babe out with the bathwater”) are already uploaded to AO3 (if you can't wait for it on reddit).
I plan to upload that second chapter to reddit here next week, though it and the third chapter feel more like Tenchi Muyo than a more general HFY-theme to me, so I'm unsure of whether you guys might want it here. I hope to finish writing (and uploading) the third chapter (“A day at the beach”) to AO3 on Sunday; right now, it's only a little more developed than the bare bones outline.
submitted by Rockafellor to HFY [link] [comments]


2020.10.30 19:27 msvillix open letter to those applying this year

hiya everyone!
in the midst of everything i've been thinking a lot and i wanted to share a lil something. to be frank, this time last year was probably one of the lowest moments of my life. the college process had me stressed and terrified, i was missing school to fill out applications and then falling behind in class -- two issues which only served to worsen the other. even after i sent in my applications i was constantly stressed and couldn't stop thinking about the decisions i would be recieving that i saw as deciding factors on how i'd live the rest of my life. i kept beating myself up over all the ways in which i felt i'd set myself up to fail throughout highschool: i didn't join enough clubs, never won any big awards, i got a d in calculus during my junior year and my senior year grades weren't looking all that great either.
then decisions started coming out. i'd ranked 7 schools through the questbridge college match, and ended up being rejected by all of them. i had my columbia application moved to early decision and was rejected by that too. i unfortunately really let this get to me and as i went into the regular decisions process, the way i was handling things got even worse: which was unfortunate, seeing as i planned on and ended up applying to about 37 different schools.
so move forward a bit and it's time for regular decisions to begin coming out. i was pretty much obsessive in the way that i was constantly scouring every website that i could to find release dates and times, and when i found them i'd count down to the second when the decision came out. by the end it was almost robotic, the way in which i logged into all those application portals, followed by the spike in terror at the sight of the words "view your application decision". i had the joy of becoming well acquainted with the various wordings of "we regret to inform you", always followed by an obligatory statement on just how qualified the massive pool of applicants had been. that would always annoy me -- like you're rejecting me, and then bragging about how many other insanely talented ppl you got to reject, thanks. after every rejection i'd hop online to see instagram story after instagram story featuring screenshots of webpages overflowing with animated confetti. i was watching my peers get into every incredible school they'd applied to as i continued to face rejection after rejection, and the downward spiral continued.
by the end of everything, i'd been rejected by 70% of the schools i had applied to - the rest being all state schools, except for one.
i'm probably always going to remember the feeling of opening my harvard decision and seeing the boldened "congratulations" at the top of the screen. it was a mess: the build up of stress, self-loathing, and doubt i'd carried over the last year at that point had suddenly found itself faced with something i'd only dreamed of happening, never really considered possible. i called my dad immediately, was screaming and sobbing into the phone, which i dropped at one point because my hands were shaking so hard.
senior year me, as i sat procrastinating every single assignment, never considered the possibility that i would someday be at my dream school doing the exact same thing (i am irresponsible). i realize now more than ever that it truly is impossible to predict how things are gonna go. the way life ends up is never really how we expect; knowing that now, i realize that the amount of time i spent beating myself up over everything the year prior was simply time wasted where i could've otherwise been enjoying my final year of highschool. i wish more than anything that i could grab my younger self by the shoulders and explain what i know now, but i can’t -- i can however share it with all of you, in the hopes that you’ll find some value in it.
don’t go into this feeling like whatever application you create, whatever decision you receive is going to determine the cap on what level of fulfillment you’ll reach in the future. do the best with what you’ve got while you got it, and when it’s over let it rest. work hard, but not at the expense of your own joy. you’ve laid out your cards, the cards you’ve been given and now all you can do is wait to see what comes next. worrying isn’t going to change the outcome; no amount of stress is going to transform a 1 into an ace after its been dealt. all you can do is be content with what you put forward knowing that it was the best you could give considering all external circumstances beyond your control. whatever outcome you receive doesn’t define the success with which you’ll be met in the future; the deck will be shuffled and the cards redealt for everyone as time goes on. just because someone else won the jackpot this time doesn’t mean you never will.
tl;dr. things can get extremely scary and stressful. it's hard to not get wrapped up in your own head and let this major process freak you out. you pour your heart and soul into a (sometimes) very personal application that will go through the most impersonal process for a simple yes or no, and that's incredibly daunting; however, it is necessary to remember that bureaucratic nature of the whole thing. the final decision that this all comes down to doesn't mean anything about your worth or what level of success you will achieve. you get to decide that; it's simply a matter of where you'll be starting. trust me when i say that you will be fine. things will work out in the end -- you're gonna end up where you're meant to be, promise.
submitted by msvillix to ApplyingToCollege [link] [comments]


2020.10.29 12:39 kalyanivishwakarma Cold Plate Market Size and Share 2020 Global Industry Analysis By Trends, Key Findings, Future Demands, Growth Factors, Emerging Technologies, Leading Players Updates and Forecast Till 2025

Cold Plate Market Size and Share 2020 Global Industry Analysis By Trends, Key Findings, Future Demands, Growth Factors, Emerging Technologies, Leading Players Updates and Forecast Till 2025
https://preview.redd.it/c700h3ift0w51.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=a1e20eb8324a6b4401de088a7dba4fb2a65bc043
Global “Cold Plate Market research report is an overview of the global market with a prime focus on factors affecting the market growth. It also provides an all-encompassing analysis of the key competitors with their strategies and the business landscape. The report is a comprehensive analysis containing key information on Cold Plate market share, major segments, and regional analysis. Report studies key growth factors, recent developments, latest trends, market size estimates, and projections for the future.
Request a sample copy of the report - https://www.industryresearch.biz/enquiry/request-sample/13916534
Global Cold Plate Market Scope:
  • The Cold Plate market was valued at Million USD in 2018 and is projected to reach Million USD by 2025, at a CAGR of during the forecast period. In this study, 2018 has been considered as the base year and 2019 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Cold Plate.
The report mainly studies the Cold Plate market size, recent trends and development status, as well as investment opportunities, market dynamics (such as driving factors, restraining factors), and industry news (like mergers, acquisitions, and investments). Technological innovation and advancement will further optimize the performance of the product, making it more widely used in downstream applications. Moreover, Porter's Five Forces Analysis (potential entrants, suppliers, substitutes, buyers, industry competitors) provides crucial information for knowing the Cold Plate market.
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The major players in the market include:
  • Aavid Kunze
  • Lytron
  • Asia Vital Components
  • AMS Technologies
  • Wolverine Tube
  • MaxQ Technology
  • Columbia-Staver
  • Wakefield-Vette
  • Xenbo Electric
  • Thermacore
  • TAT Technologies
  • ZETA Electronics
  • Koolance
  • DAU GmbH & Co KG
  • Hitachi
  • Tucker Engineering
  • Niagara Thermal
  • Suzhou Wint Electric
  • HS Marston
  • TE Technology
The report identifies various key manufacturers of the market. It helps the reader understand the strategies and collaborations that players are focusing on combat competition in the market. The comprehensive report provides a significant microscopic look at the market. The reader can identify the footprints of the manufacturers by knowing about the global revenue of manufacturers, the global price of manufacturers, and production by manufacturers during the forecast period of 2015 to 2019.
On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into:
  • Formed Tube Cold Plate
  • Deep Drilled Cold Plate
  • Machined Channel Cold Plates
  • Pocketed Folded-Fin Cold Plates
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On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including:
  • Electrical Equipment
  • Electronic Equipment
Some of the key questions answered in this report:
  • What will the market growth rate, growth momentum or acceleration market carries during the forecast period?
  • Which are the key factors driving the Cold Plate market?
  • What was the size of the emerging Cold Plate market by value in 2019?
  • What will be the size of the emerging Cold Plate market in 2026?
  • Which region is expected to hold the highest market share in the Cold Plate market?
  • What trends, challenges and barriers will impact the development and sizing of the Global Cold Plate market?
  • What are the sales volume, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of the Cold Plate market?
  • What are the Cold Plate market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Cold Plate Industry?
The study objectives of the Cold Plate market are:
  • To analyze and research the global Cold Plate capacity, production, value, consumption, status and forecast;
  • To focus on the key Cold Plate manufacturers and study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in next few years.
  • To focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
  • To define, describe, and forecast the market by type, application and region.
  • To analyze the global and key region's market potential and advantage, opportunity, and challenge, restraints and risks.
  • To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting market growth.
  • To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
  • To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market.
  • To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.
  • To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.
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Years considered for this report:
  • History Year: 2014-2018
  • Base Year: 2018
  • Estimated Year: 2019
  • Cold Plate Market Forecast Year 2019 to 2025
With tables and figures helping analyses worldwide Global Cold Plate market trends, this research provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.
Some Points from TOC:
1 Study Coverage 1.1 Cold Plate Product 1.2 Key Market Segments in This Study 1.3 Key Manufacturers Covered 1.4 Market by Type 1.4.1 Global Cold Plate Market Size Growth Rate by Type 1.4.2 Type 1 1.4.3 Type 2 1.4.4 Type 3 1.4.5 Others 1.5 Market by Application 1.5.1 Global Cold Plate Market Size Growth Rate by Application 1.5.2 Application 1 1.5.3 Application 2 1.6 Study Objectives 1.7 Years Considered
2 Executive Summary 2.1 Global Cold Plate Market Size 2.1.1 Global Cold Plate Revenue 2014-2025 2.1.2 Global Cold Plate Production 2014-2025 2.2 Cold Plate Market Growth Rate (CAGR) 2019-2025 2.3 Analysis of Competitive Landscape 2.3.1 Manufacturers Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI) 2.3.2 Key Cold Plate Manufacturers 2.3.2.1 Cold Plate Manufacturing Base Distribution, Headquarters 2.3.2.2 Manufacturers Cold Plate Product Offered 2.3.2.3 Date of Manufacturers Enter into Cold Plate Market 2.4 Key Trends for Cold Plate Markets & Products
3 Market Size by Manufacturers 3.1 Cold Plate Production by Manufacturers 3.1.1 Cold Plate Production by Manufacturers 3.1.2 Cold Plate Production Market Share by Manufacturers 3.2 Cold Plate Revenue by Manufacturers 3.2.1 Cold Plate Revenue by Manufacturers (2014-2019) 3.2.2 Cold Plate Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2014-2019) 3.3 Cold Plate Price by Manufacturers 3.4 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans
4 Cold Plate Production by Regions 5 Cold Plate Consumption by Regions 5.1 Global Cold Plate Consumption by Regions 5.2 North America 5.3 Europe 5.4 Asia Pacific 5.5 Central & South America 5.6 Middle East and Africa
6 Market Size by Type 7 Market Size by Application
8 Manufacturers Profiles 8.1 Company Profile 1 8.1.1 Company Profile 1 Company Details 8.1.2 Company Overview 8.1.3 Company Profile 1 Cold Plate Production Revenue and Gross Margin (2014-2019) 8.1.4 Company Profile 1 Cold Plate Product Description 8.1.5 Company Profile 1 Recent Development
8.2 Company Profile 2 8.2.1 Company Profile 2 Company Details 8.2.2 Company Overview 8.2.3 Company Profile 2 Cold Plate Production Revenue and Gross Margin (2014-2019) 8.2.4 Company Profile 2 Cold Plate Product Description 8.2.5 Company Profile 2 Recent Development
8.3 Company Profile 2 8.3.1 Company Profile 2 Company Details 8.3.2 Company Overview 8.3.3 Company Profile 2 Cold Plate Production Revenue and Gross Margin (2014-2019) 8.3.4 Company Profile 2 Cold Plate Product Description 8.3.5 Company Profile 2 Recent Development …………………………………………… 11 Value Chain and Sales Channels Analysis 11.1 Value Chain Analysis 11.2 Sales Channels Analysis 11.2.1 Cold Plate Sales Channels 11.2.2 Cold Plate Distributors 11.3 Cold Plate Customers
12 Market Opportunities & Challenges, Risks and Influences Factors Analysis 12.1 Market Opportunities and Drivers 12.2 Market Challenges 12.3 Market Risks/Restraints
13 Key Findings in the Global Cold Plate Study Continue……………..
Detailed TOC of Global Cold Plate Market @ https://www.industryresearch.biz/TOC/13916534
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2020.10.28 16:04 UpgradeTech After 10 years, here’s my (mostly complete) Fallout New Vegas music CD and record collection containing the songs from the game’s radio soundtrack from 1942 to 2009.

Hello all. With the 10-year anniversary of Fallout: New Vegas, I wanted to share with you a project I have been working on for the past couple of years. I have been trying to collect the music of the Fallout series on the original records as a way to bring the games to life.
I've been working on other similar video game record collections, however, the Fallout series has proven to be a combination of both fascinating and frustrating in tracking down the original versions of the songs used in the game which run the gamut from shellac 78s, vinyl LPs and 45s to enormous 16 inch transcription discs, radio broadcasts, re-recordings, Snader Telescriptions, 8 tracks, and stock music. New Vegas runs the gamut from 1942-2009 and every decade and music format in between.
For those of you impatient with this wall of text to see another wall of text, but with far more pictures mostly alphabetized by artist, here's the link where I try to document every single record used in Fallout: New Vegas' various main radio stations, Radio New Vegas, Black Mountain Radio, and Mojave Music Radio.
https://imgur.com/a/vCoH9Y1
Important: Imgur may or many not prompt you to click on "Expand More Images"; the image album goes far beyond 10 pictures.
And of course we can't forget Mr. New Vegas aka Wayne Newton and perhaps his most famous single "Danke Schoen". Though some might say his voice is very different; many people confuse it with a woman's voice.

Breakdown by decade.

This is a continuation of my previous post on the 10 year anniversary of Fallout 3. https://www.reddit.com/Fallout/comments/9rkz6y/after_10_years_of_fallout_3_heres_my_mostly/
Compared the Fallout 3, finding the records for New Vegas was more difficult since many weren’t available as jukebox singles, only came on albums, were the wrong versions, or just more rare overall.
4 songs were re-recordings/obscure versions and very uncommon to find outside the game since radios do not use the more famous originals: “Heartaches by the Number”, “It’s a Sin to Tell a Lie”, “Why Don’t You Do Right”, “Hangover Heart”. (Also an easy way to check if a Spotify or YouTube playlist compilation of the New Vegas soundtrack accurately uses the in-game versions) See also: “Jingle Jangle Jingle”.
New Vegas' soundtrack also tends to move forward in time with more records being first issued on the newly invented vinyl record instead of shellac 78s. More of them largely exist only on albums and weren't issued as singles.
Of course with albums comes cover art. While Fallout 3 had one song associated with a nudist film, a couple of pieces of album art for New Vegas feature a number of provocative poses even if it has nothing to do with the song itself, be warned that it is Sin City indeed.
Of course, people know the story of why Elvis was way too expensive to put in New Vegas. As for Rat Pack songs, there's one each for Sinatra and Dean Martin from their Capitol recording days. Sammy Davis Jr. would be a Decca records guy at the time (the label is much rarer to find in New Vegas compared to Fallout 3), but he is represented in the game as Tommy Torini.

1940s

  • "Jingle Jangle Jingle" was recorded for Columbia Records in 1942, the same year as "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition". However, Fallout 76 actually uses the 1962 version of the song made after Kay Kyser retired, made with former members of his orchestra for Capitol Records. Weirdly, there are a couple of videos on youtube with the New Vegas logo for "Jingle Jangle Jingle" with millions of views that are using the wrong version of the song. It's not the in-game Columbia Records version, but taken from the same 1962 Capitol Records album that Fallout 76 uses. Though it hasn't been picked up by youtube's copyright ContentID program compared to the in-game version.
  • "Stars of the Midnight Range" is another one of those darn 16 inch transcription discs. Imagine taking a record and enlarging it to the size of your car hubcap. Like Fallout 3's Bob Crosby songs, you need a turntable that can actually accommodate the increased size. Standard turntables will cause the record to overlap the tonearm itself. According to his autobiography, Johnny Bond recorded it in 1944. The same Soundies Inc. CD album reissue also provided "Headin' Down the Wrong Highway" used in Fallout 76 which is the only other "new" Soundies transcription song used after the dissolution of the archiving company after the death of the archivist.
  • "It's a Sin" is the only RCA Victor song in New Vegas, similar to "Anything Goes" from Fallout 3. Eddy Arnold recorded it in 1946. It would take until Fallout 4 to more RCA Victor song to appear in Fallout. Probably unsurprisingly, there are quite a few songs that talk about sin in New Vegas.
  • "Mad About the Boy" is another 16 inch transcription disc song. Helen Forrest recorded this Noel Coward standard in the 1949-1950 period with the rather impressively-named Carmen Dragon and his orchestra. Fallout being Fallout means that this transcription disc uses vertical grooves (up and down) instead of the more common lateral grooves (side to side). If you look very closely at the huge record sleeve, there are enormous letters that say "VERTICAL". In the days before stereo sound, the idea was that since transcription disc turntables used rubber idler wheels that horizontally rub to rotate the platter, this imparts noise in the playback since the needle also moves horizontally. Therefore the grooves should undulate up and down to avoid excess noise to get good mono playback. When stereo sound was perfected a decade or so later, grooves would move the needle up-down and left-right to get two discrete stereo channels. As such, since my cartridge is meant for lateral discs, I can't actually play this disc until I find a stereo cartridge for the tonearm, Fallout being Fallout.

1950s

  • "Orange Colored Sky" doesn't actually appear in-game, though it was prominently used in a 2010 TV trailer for New Vegas. It sort of languished in obscurity with the other Fallout trailer song "Dear Hearts and Gentle People" until they finally made it into a Fallout game with 2015's Fallout 4. It was recorded by Nat King Cole in 1950 for Capitol Records. New Vegas would actually be the first in the series to start to use Capitol Records songs.
This is also the last shellac 78 used for New Vegas before the soundtrack transitions into the newer vinyl era.
By the way there is an interesting Nat King Cole song that encapsulates the Fallout soundtrack called "Mr. Cole Won't Rock and Roll". It doesn't appear on the original 1966 release of the album Live at the Sands released after his death in 1965, but it does on the CD reissue.

1960s

  • "Ain't That a Kick in the Head" is also pretty iconic and was featured in the film Ocean's 11 in 1960. Unusually for a Dean Martin Capitol Records 45, this is rather hard to find. It apparently failed to chart despite being in the movie. Probably because it didn't do too well, the budget compilation album company Pickwick reissued the song a lot on so-called "Greatest Hits" albums. The 1957 Pickwick album You Can't Love 'Em All is probably the earliest reissue and one of the most common. Though the end credits still credit Capitol Records for the song so they likely still retain the rights.
  • "Blue Moon" is the only other Rat Pack song in New Vegas, this time by Frank Sinatra himself. It was taken from the 1961 Capitol Records album Sinatra's Swingin' Session!!! and doesn't appear to have been issued as a single though there are some obscure EP versions that cut down the album. This was his third to last studio album for Capitol Records, though it is a partial re-make of an album he had made previously for Columbia Records ten years ago when he was still a bobby-soxer heartthrob. By 1960, Sinatra would be rather preoccupied with launching his own record label, Reprise. Of course it didn't stop Capitol from releasing a number of compilation albums after his departure from the label.
  • "Happy Times" is another Bert Weedon guitar instrumental. It was originally titled "China Doll" and released in on HMV (His Master's Voice) records in 1961. People of a certain age from the UK may recall when 45s came with knock-out centres lest they suffer from the record dinker tool to force them to fit in a jukebox.

1970s

Meanwhile, director Ridley Scott was riding on a wave of fame after the release of Alien in 1979. To keep up his directing chops, he made a series of commercials for Chanel No. 5, the perfume. The first was the radically different Blue Sky commercial with a woman lounging by a pool with the tagline “Share the Fantasy”.
The second came out in 1982, known officially as “L'invitation au rêve - Le jardin”.
There are several different versions with dialog, but they all feature the same images of the mysterious woman and man and personal questions.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dx3Na_7inPI
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B_AHJ3miqLE
The curious thing about the commercial is that it uses the re-recording of “I Don’t Want to Set the World on Fire” from this very same album. The commercial garnered a feature in the December 14, 1982 issue of the New York Times, but it does not mention the discrepancy in the recordings. The recording proved so popular in France that it led to a reissue of the album in 1983 with a new cover evoking scenes from the commercial spot and sprinkling of piano present in the commercial, but not in the original 1979 album.
Later the same year in 1982, Ridley Scott would complete Blade Runner which featured similar imagery from the commercial and another Ink Spots song in the original trailer "If I Didn't Care". This was cut from the theatrical release and replaced with the soundalike "One More Kiss, Dear". The original Ink Spots tune is restored depending on which version of the movie you have.
For "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie", it's arguably one of Billy Kenny's last recordings before he died in 1978.
Again, you have to be careful with buying the Ink Spots on vinyl LPs. After the Ink Spots broke up, many impostor groups rand around recording under the Ink Spots name even if they didn't have any original members. At best for Ink Spots LPs you can have mono or fake stereo, but original recordings, the worst will have entirely new re-recordings with no original members. Most of the Ink Spots repertoire was originally recorded on mono shellac 78s and a couple of the songs used in Fallout never made the jump to vinyl. If you want to find vinyl compilation albums with the original versions you know and love from the games, try to find labels and the subsidiaries which hold the original rights like Decca, MCA, and Brunswick to reduce the chance of them being re-recordings.
Of course for "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie", it is taken from an album of re-recordings though with Bill Kenny as the original member. I've been able to confirm the following issues as having the New Vegas version of the song though it could be there are others especially on compilations with other artists. While all of the other Ink Spots songs used in Fallout are licensed from Decca/Geffen Records, the New Vegas end credits for this song mention a Dominion Entertainment which appears to be a K-Tel subsidiary which also provided the other oddball New Vegas song "Heartaches by the Number". I'm not sure how Spotify would categorize this.
  1. The Ink Spots originally recorded "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie" for Decca Records in 1941, but New Vegas does not use this version of the song.
  2. Bill Kenny did record "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie" for Mercury Records in 1962 for the album Bill Kenny Sings the Golden Hits of the Ink Spots, but this is a different version.
  3. If I Didn't Care (1979) is the first known issue of the New Vegas version of the song. It had a couple of issues in 1979 under the Columbia subsidiaries of CBS/51 West Records. Unfortunately, it's a rather vague title featuring the Ink Spots' best-selling song, muddling searches quite a bit. It features a fountain pen, an ink bottle and a rose on the cover. Depending on which format you find the album, it may or may not actually mention if it's re-recordings. The LP says it's full of "previously released material", but I have not managed to find an earlier issue of these recordings. The cover and the label mention a certain "Springboard International" and "Koala Record Company".
Here is the 8-track issue of the song in the most 70s way I can think of, with a space age Weltron and a lava lamp. Around the middle you get the dreaded fade-out and fade-in that people of a certain age may remember about the quirks of the 8-track format.
  1. Ink Spots Greatest Hits (1982) again has a rather vague title, but it was made by Era Records. I don't know why the cover art features a woman in a suggestive pose covered in stars if none of the titles reference this. I guess it was the 80s. The cover does mention that it's re-recordings by "Key Seven Music" and "Dominion Music Corporation".
  2. The World on Fire (I Don't Want to Set...) (1983) Again, the title is rather vague, but this is an unusual French issue under Carrere/Media Plus. The cover art features imagery from the Chanel No. 5 perfume commercial as mentioned above with the man and the tower looking on a man and a woman enjoying a chance meeting. The text boxes reference this with "Musique originale du spot TV" (Original music from the TV commercial) and "Nouveaux enregistrements" (New recordings). There also was a lead single 45 with the same cover art, but it only has the version of "I Don't Want to Set the World on Fire" from the commercial and "We Three (My Echo My Shadow and Me)". The cover mentions "Kilo Music Limited" and "Key Seven Music".
My copy actually appears to be signed by Harold Winley, Jim Nabbie, Sony Hatchett, and King Drake aka the Jim Nabbie's Ink Spots. There's an interesting article from the August 1, 1985 issue of South Florida Sun Sentinel about the Jim Nabbie's Ink Spots suing other Ink Spots groups for using the Ink Spots name. Whatever the case, they were not present at the original 1941 recording sessions for "I Don't Want to Set the World on Fire" and "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie", nor does it appear that Bill Kenny sang with the group at the 1978 recording session. Apparently they were based around the Florida area and I'd love to know the circumstances that led them to signing an Ink Spots record pressed in France.
One more note on this song: I haven't been able to find much about the recording of the album. There is some information about the album having being made in Nashville in some newspaper articles for the Vancouver Sun in 1982-1983 by Denny Boyd. It was brought forth by Bill Kenny's widow Audrey McBurney who apparently tried to sue the Chanel No. 5 perfume corporation for unauthorized use of the song from the album. Other newspaper articles from 1985-1992 either misidentify or correctly identify the version of the song used in the commercial.
https://imgur.com/a/5pgwPPE
Presumably there would be more information about the album in the court case if it still exists. I've tried to visit a couple of legal libraries over the years, but Canadian court cases and appeals are hard to get this side of the border and since it took place around 1982, it is before the 1985 digitization limit. The case was possibly dropped and settled out of court, but if there are any Canadian Fallout fans who have access to the legal archives in Vancouver, I'd greatly appreciate any help in this matter on Bill Kenny's last album.

1980s

The New Vegas version was recorded in 1980 for K-Tel Records in Nashville. The end credits of New Vegas for the song do not mention Columbia Records, the original label, like they do for "Big Iron" and "Jingle Jangle Jingle". Instead it's "Dominion Entertainment" again like for "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie". Dominion Entertainment also appears appears to be a K-Tel subsidiary I'm not sure how Spotify would categorize this.
Candlelite Records provided the earliest issue of the New Vegas version that I could find. There appears to have been an acquisition/lawsuit/bankruptcy between Candlelite and K-Tel in 1980 and 1984. However, they were multiple Candlelite compilations issued in 1983 which have the New Vegas version.
  1. The Top 100 Country Hits of All Time (1983) This is a long 5 LP set (or 3 8-track) Candlelite set. The minuscule asterisks mention this version of the song is a re-recording by the original artist provided by "Imperial Music".
  2. The 1950's Rock and Roll Music Collection - Looking Back (1983) This is part of a colorful Candlelite series, this one is yellow and features a woman precariously rocking back at a bowling alley. It's a 3 LP set with a large booklet featuring random 1950s trivia. The album mentions a random mix of original and re-recordings by the original artist, some provided by "Imperial Music".
  3. Country Music Cavalcade - Nashville Graffiti (1983) 3 LPs. This is a confusing issue for Candlelite Records. First, there is a nearly identical 1976 version of Nashville Graffiti which uses the CBS/Columbia Records version aka the original recording not used in New Vegas. Cavalcade is also a series with nearly identical covers which have different bylines like "Welcome to Candlelite Country" while emphasis should be placed on the Nashville Graffiti byline for the New Vegas version. The cover is a scribbly one-line type drawing with a man and woman singing next to a jukebox and a car near a diner. It mentions re-recordings from "Key Seven Music".
  4. Heat of the 50s (1987) This is a cassette released by Master Sound a subsidiary of the Mastertronic video game company from the UK. There's a long story about this release, but the intriguing thing is that it also has the version of "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie" from New Vegas as well which is extremely unusual. The cover features black and white clipart of a man dancing? The tape does mention re-recordings from "Kilo Music Limited".
  5. Those Fabulous 50s (1988) Another UK release from Ocean Records. The lamination is unfortunately peeling off from the cover which features a large closeup of a car. The label does mention re-recordings from "Kilo Music Limited".
  6. Hooked on Country (1990) Another UK release, this time a true-blue K-Tel record instead of one of its subsidiaries. It's a gatefold for a single LP with 50 non-stop country classics. Because it's non-stop, it's mostly one giant groove with no track separations, so cuing is a little difficult. The track credits are a bit of a mess with some tracks being re-recorded and some not. "Heartaches" is credited to a "S J Productions Inc." You can actually hear the New Vegas version of "Heartaches on this very old K-Tel TV commercial for the album.
There are likely other issues, but these are the ones I found so far with the New Vegas version. I also have a large number of "duds" from various countries which do not have the version featured in Fallout.
This is the last track used in New Vegas that was originally issued on vinyl before the soundtrack moves forward into the newer CD era.

1990s

Much of this information comes from the physical CDs themselves and their liner notes booklets. Surprisingly, the original CDs were among the hardest things to track down for New Vegas. Some people assume these songs were composed specifically for New Vegas mostly because they don't seem to exist outside of New Vegas. But these were songs composed by many talented musicians who are still working today. I will try to list instances where the song also appeared in media earlier than New Vegas.
You may recognize the other Dick Walter tracks on the Pure Big Band KPM CD set. "Hey, Hot Lips!" was used on the UK version of Whose Line is It Anyway? for the Narrate scenes back in the 1990s. The US version uses a slightly less sleazy version for its narrate scenes. "Hot Liquorice" was also used in 1998 X-Files "Triangle" episode and the Boggart scene coming from the gramophone Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.

2000s

Here we are firmly in the CD era and some of Fallout's most modern songs. Some of these CDs would be issued on cardboard digipaks instead of plastic jewel cases.

TL;DR

Like all Fallout games, trying to track down the original releases and information about the songs in New Vegas was simultaneously interesting, rewarding, surprising, and very frustrating since so little information seems to exist about many of the songs outside of the game and the wide range of formats from shellac to vinyl to transcription discs to reel to reel tape to 8-tracks to cassettes to CDs. And yet after 10 years on the anniversary, it is still incomplete and I'm still looking.
Continued below...
submitted by UpgradeTech to Fallout [link] [comments]


2020.10.27 16:54 jessie_berry The case of Blair Adams is one of the most bizarre and fascinating unsolved mysteries I've ever come across. The Canadian fled from British Columbia and ended up dead in Tennessee days later. What happened to him?

Blair Adams (aka Robert Dennis Blair Adams) was 31 years old when he was found dead in a construction site in Tennessee, United States--thousands of miles away from his home in British Columbia, Canada. Blair was a construction foreman who was known to be friendly and generous; his mother described him as “kind” and “ambitious”. He met his untimely demise through a series of extremely bizarre and strange events that remain unexplained to this day.
This is one of the fascinating cases I’ve come across. It’s been posted here before but the circumstances surrounding his death are so mind boggling that I believe the case still warrants discussion.
TIMELINE:
Weeks Prior: He began acting very strange in the weeks before his disappearance and ultimately death. He was described to have acted out of character: paranoid, erratic and anxious. He told his friends and mother that someone was spreading rumours about him and that someone was going to kill him. He would not explain who nor why. Other odd behaviour he exhibited include the fact that he stopped attending his AA meetings (he was 2 years sober at that point), left his worksite unlocked and quit his job without picking up his last pay cheque.
05JUL1996: He started preparations for his departure by withdrawing most of his money from his bank account and valuables from his safe deposit box including gold bars, platinum and jewelry. He would keep these in a fanny pack.
7JUL1996: His first attempt into the US was via a ferry from Victoria, British Columbia to Seattle, Washington. US immigration officials flagged him because he fit the profile of a drug courier: lone male traveling with a lot of cash. Red flag number one. Red flag number two was raised when he denied any criminal history. However, his background check showed that he had been convicted of drug and assault charges in the past. Thus, he was denied entry.
9JUL1996: Early morning he tried to cross into the US by foot through the Pacific Highway Border Crossing. He was denied by border patrol once again because he matched the description of a man involved in a car theft and the blue car was found nearby the border crossing. However, Blair denied these allegations and the officials let him go since there was enough evidence against him. They noticed that he had scratches on his hands and feet. Interestingly, his friend would later tell the investigators that she saw Blair driving a blue car that day, not his regular Chevette. He finally makes it across on his 3rd attempt to Seattle via a rental Nissan Altima from Vancouver International Airport. He drove the Nissan Altima from Vancouver International Airport to Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. Strangely, he purchased a roundtrip ticket to Frankfurt, Germany. Why Frankfurt? Well in late 1995 he worked on a construction project near the city and he dated a girl there during this time. However, his German girlfriend told the police later that he never informed her that he was coming. Blair never got on that flight. Instead, he cashed in his credit for a one way ticket ($800) to Washington, DC. Quite a few sources point out the price because it was double the cost of a roundtrip ticket but I think it could’ve been just the earliest flight out to Washington.
10JUL1996: He arrived at Dulles International Airport in the morning ~6:45am and rented a Toyota Camry. Then he started the 7 hour drive to Knoxville, Tennessee. The first sighting of him in Knoxville was at a gas station ~5:30pm. He had trouble getting into his car with the key and called for a repair service. When the clerk arrived, he realized that Blair had been trying to open the Toyota Camry with his Nissan Altima key (remember the other rental?). However, when he tried to advise him to check his pockets for the right key, Blair was determined that he had the correct key. Ultimately, the clerk dropped Blair off at Fairfield Inn and called a tow truck for the Camry.
LAST SIGHTING: Blair checked in at the inn around 7pm and continued to display strange behaviour. From surveillance footage, he entered and exited the lobby 5 times in 40 min. The hotel staff also described him to be paranoid and anxious, seemingly waiting for someone to attack at any moment.
11JUL1996: He was found dead in the morning at 7:30am by two construction workers at the construction site of a hotel across from Fairfield Inn. There was $4000 in cash scattered around his body in US, Canadian and German currencies. His socks, shoes and along with his pants were taken off. Knox County Sheriff described it “like somebody else pulled them down for him”. There was also a black duffel bag near his body with maps and receipts. The Toyota Camry key he couldn’t find at the gas station? Yes, it was also by the body. Autopsy showed that the cause of death was sepsis due to a blow that ruptured his stomach--likely from a crowbar or club. Toxicology showed that there was no alcohol or drugs in his system.
There wasn’t much evidence for the investigators:
  1. No murder weapon: He sustained several injuries and defensive wounds. It looked like he was beaten by the assailant(s).
  2. Lack of DNA evidence: Certain injuries indicate that he had been sexually assaulted, however no DNA evidence could confirm this. Furthermore, they also could not say when the assault had taken place and thus could have been unrelated to his death if it did happen. The only DNA evidence they found was a single long strand of hair. I couldn’t find any reports confirming whether it was from a male or female (not sure why)
  3. No witnesses: Security guard nearby heard a scream at 3:30am.
THEORIES
Sexual encounter gone wrong: This was the prevailing theory from investigators because of the way the body was found (naked from waist down), evidence of sexual assault and there was a truck stop nearby and the area was a hub filled with prostitution. So Blair solicits a prostitute, the deal goes bad and they (the sex worker and/or their pimp) try to scam him. A fight ensues and they accidentally kill him. I don’t really buy this theory since there was a lot of cash around the body. If it was just about the money, then why didn’t they take any? Even if they were scared that they had killed him, it’s hard for me to believe that they wouldn’t take any of the cash. I also read that some people believe that they didn’t take the cash because it was in different currencies: either they didn't want it to be traced back to them somehow while exchanging or just didn’t want to exchange it. However, I would argue this took place some time during the night. Unless the construction site is really well lit, then how could they tell it was a different currency? Even if the money looked foreign, wouldn’t they just scoop it up, run and then sort through it later? Also, they didn’t take any of the fanny pack’s valuables.
Sudden onset of mental illness: He was mentally ill and had a psychotic break. His psychosis drove him to create this elaborate escape plan and ultimately he either took his own life or a chance encounter took his life. Supporting evidence of this include his bizarre paranoid behaviour weeks prior to his death, history of mental illness in his family, history of alcohol abuse and age (31). However, he was never diagnosed with mental illness himself. On top of that, his friends all denied that they had seen him display any signs as well. Since there was no concrete evidence, it’s hard for me to believe this theory. To play the devil’s advocate, if he was truly stable and went to many of his friends and family to let them know someone was going aftekill him...why didn’t any of them report this to the authorities? Or even get him medical help? Very strange.
To be honest, he could very well have had mental illness. However, the reality of the threat and possible mental illness are not mutually exclusive. He may have been schizophrenic and his life was in real danger. Or even the threat of his safety may have triggered the psychosis.
Organized crime hit: He was involved in illegal activities (most likely drug related given his past), got in way over his head, pissed off the wrong people and they murdered him for it. This is the theory that I’m leaning towards. This is also related to his time in Germany. Unlike his girlfriend who described him as a “gentleman”, he was seen as “abrasive”, “confrontational” and got in fights with his German ex-workers. He also relayed that he actually feared violence from them! On top of this, a poster from sitcomonline claimed that his ex-girlfriend and friend revealed his trip to Germany ended earlier than expected and that he was different after he came back. But why would they stalk him all the way to Tennessee? Maybe it was just to mentally torture Blair and see him break (which he did) before finally killing him. Finally, his pants being pulled down could be a way to humiliate him.
I could go on for hours on this case but this post is so long already so I'll stop here. What do you guys think happened to him?
Links if you're interested:
  1. My video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2BLR6sOySA&t=1s&ab_channel=jessieberry
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Blair_Adams
  3. https://web.archive.org/web/20180612144437/http://etspj.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/BlairAdams.pdf
  4. https://torontosun.com/news/crime/crime-hunter-death-far-from-home
  5. https://www.sitcomsonline.com/boards/showthread.php?t=115863
submitted by jessie_berry to TrueCrime [link] [comments]


2020.10.27 02:01 jessie_berry What happened to Blair Adams? A series of incredibly bizarre events led this Canadian to flee from British Columbia and end up dead in a construction site in Tennessee

Blair Adams (aka Robert Dennis Blair Adams) was 31 years old when he was found dead in a construction site in Tennessee, United States--thousands of miles away from his home in British Columbia, Canada. Blair was a construction foreman who was known to be friendly and generous; his mother described him as “kind” and “ambitious”. He met his untimely demise through a series of extremely bizarre and strange events that remain unexplained to this day.
This is one of the fascinating cases I’ve come across. It’s been posted here before but the circumstances surrounding his death are so mind boggling that I believe the case still warrants discussion.
TIMELINE:
Weeks Prior: He began acting very strange in the weeks before his disappearance and ultimately death. He was described to have acted out of character: paranoid, erratic and anxious. He told his friends and mother that someone was spreading rumours about him and that someone was going to kill him. He would not explain who nor why. Other odd behaviour he exhibited include the fact that he stopped attending his AA meetings (he was 2 years sober at that point), left his worksite unlocked and quit his job without picking up his last pay cheque.
05JUL1996: He started preparations for his departure by withdrawing most of his money from his bank account and valuables from his safe deposit box including gold bars, platinum and jewelry. He would keep these in a fanny pack.
7JUL1996: His first attempt into the US was via a ferry from Victoria, British Columbia to Seattle, Washington. US immigration officials flagged him because he fit the profile of a drug courier: lone male traveling with a lot of cash. Red flag number one. Red flag number two was raised when he denied any criminal history. However, his background check showed that he had been convicted of drug and assault charges in the past. Thus, he was denied entry.
9JUL1996: Early morning he tried to cross into the US by foot through the Pacific Highway Border Crossing. He was denied by border patrol once again because he matched the description of a man involved in a car theft and the blue car was found nearby the border crossing. However, Blair denied these allegations and the officials let him go since there was enough evidence against him. They noticed that he had scratches on his hands and feet. Interestingly, his friend would later tell the investigators that she saw Blair driving a blue car that day, not his regular Chevette. He finally makes it across on his 3rd attempt to Seattle via a rental Nissan Altima from Vancouver International Airport. He drove the Nissan Altima from Vancouver International Airport to Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. Strangely, he purchased a roundtrip ticket to Frankfurt, Germany. Why Frankfurt? Well in late 1995 he worked on a construction project near the city and he dated a girl there during this time. However, his German girlfriend told the police later that he never informed her that he was coming. Blair never got on that flight. Instead, he cashed in his credit for a one way ticket ($800) to Washington, DC. Quite a few sources point out the price because it was double the cost of a roundtrip ticket but I think it could’ve been just the earliest flight out to Washington.
10JUL1996: He arrived at Dulles International Airport in the morning ~6:45am and rented a Toyota Camry. Then he started the 7 hour drive to Knoxville, Tennessee. The first sighting of him in Knoxville was at a gas station ~5:30pm. He had trouble getting into his car with the key and called for a repair service. When the clerk arrived, he realized that Blair had been trying to open the Toyota Camry with his Nissan Altima key (remember the other rental?). However, when he tried to advise him to check his pockets for the right key, Blair was determined that he had the correct key. Ultimately, the clerk dropped Blair off at Fairfield Inn and called a tow truck for the Camry.
LAST SIGHTING: Blair checked in at the inn around 7pm and continued to display strange behaviour. From surveillance footage, he entered and exited the lobby 5 times in 40 min. The hotel staff also described him to be paranoid and anxious, seemingly waiting for someone to attack at any moment.
11JUL1996: He was found dead in the morning at 7:30am by two construction workers at the construction site of a hotel across from Fairfield Inn. There was $4000 in cash scattered around his body in US, Canadian and German currencies. His socks, shoes and along with his pants were taken off. Knox County Sheriff described it “like somebody else pulled them down for him”. There was also a black duffel bag near his body with maps and receipts. The Toyota Camry key he couldn’t find at the gas station? Yes, it was also by the body. Autopsy showed that the cause of death was sepsis due to a blow that ruptured his stomach--likely from a crowbar or club. Toxicology showed that there was no alcohol or drugs in his system.
There wasn’t much evidence for the investigators:
  1. No murder weapon: He sustained several injuries and defensive wounds. It looked like he was beaten by the assailant(s).
  2. Lack of DNA evidence: Certain injuries indicate that he had been sexually assaulted, however no DNA evidence could confirm this. Furthermore, they also could not say when the assault had taken place and thus could have been unrelated to his death if it did happen. The only DNA evidence they found was a single long strand of hair. I couldn’t find any reports confirming whether it was from a male or female (not sure why)
  3. No witnesses: Security guard nearby heard a scream at 3:30am.
THEORIES
Sexual encounter gone wrong: This was the prevailing theory from investigators because of the way the body was found (naked from waist down), evidence of sexual assault and there was a truck stop nearby and the area was a hub filled with prostitution. So Blair solicits a prostitute, the deal goes bad and they (the sex worker and/or their pimp) try to scam him. A fight ensues and they accidentally kill him. I don’t really buy this theory since there was a lot of cash around the body. If it was just about the money, then why didn’t they take any? Even if they were scared that they had killed him, it’s hard for me to believe that they wouldn’t take any of the cash. I also read that some people believe that they didn’t take the cash because it was in different currencies: either they didn't want it to be traced back to them somehow while exchanging or just didn’t want to exchange it. However, I would argue this took place some time during the night. Unless the construction site is really well lit, then how could they tell it was a different currency? Even if the money looked foreign, wouldn’t they just scoop it up, run and then sort through it later? Also, they didn’t take any of the fanny pack’s valuables.
Sudden onset of mental illness: He was mentally ill and had a psychotic break. His psychosis drove him to create this elaborate escape plan and ultimately he either took his own life or a chance encounter took his life. Supporting evidence of this include his bizarre paranoid behaviour weeks prior to his death, history of mental illness in his family, history of alcohol abuse and age (31). However, he was never diagnosed with mental illness himself. On top of that, his friends all denied that they had seen him display any signs as well. Since there was no concrete evidence, it’s hard for me to believe this theory. To play the devil’s advocate, if he was truly stable and went to many of his friends and family to let them know someone was going aftekill him...why didn’t any of them report this to the authorities? Or even get him medical help? Very strange.
To be honest, he could very well have had mental illness. However, the reality of the threat and possible mental illness are not mutually exclusive. He may have been schizophrenic and his life was in real danger. Or even the threat of his safety may have triggered the psychosis.
Organized crime hit: He was involved in illegal activities (most likely drug related given his past), got in way over his head, pissed off the wrong people and they murdered him for it. This is the theory that I’m leaning towards. This is also related to his time in Germany. Unlike his girlfriend who described him as a “gentleman”, he was seen as “abrasive”, “confrontational” and got in fights with his German ex-workers. He also relayed that he actually feared violence from them! On top of this, a poster from sitcomonline claimed that his ex-girlfriend and friend revealed his trip to Germany ended earlier than expected and that he was different after he came back. But why would they stalk him all the way to Tennessee? Maybe it was just to mentally torture Blair and see him break (which he did) before finally killing him. Finally, his pants being pulled down could be a way to humiliate him.
I could go on for hours on this case but this post is so long already so I'll stop here. What do you guys think happened to him?
Links:
  1. My video on the case
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Blair_Adams
  3. https://web.archive.org/web/20180612144437/http://etspj.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/BlairAdams.pdf
  4. https://torontosun.com/news/crime/crime-hunter-death-far-from-home
  5. https://www.sitcomsonline.com/boards/showthread.php?t=115863
submitted by jessie_berry to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]


2020.10.26 18:43 AmericanNewt8 Boned: Problems (but not too many) in the US Air [and Space] Force!

No. You don't frighten me, Mollari. If you try to go up against our forces, you'll lose.
Yes, your ships are very impressive in the air, or in space--but at this moment, they are on the ground.
Right--they're on the ground. But they can sense an approaching ship from miles away. So what are you going to do, Mollari, blow up the island?
Actually--now that you mention it--[pulls detonator from pocket]
No!
[presses detonator]
Babylon 5, explaining the vulnerability of aircraft to ground attack in typical hammy fashion
Hello, and welcome to another episode of "AmericanNewt8 explains the global military situation at present in a convenient, possibly easy-to-read guide". Maybe I should make a YouTube channel or something. All the cool kids [and a lot of idiots who know nothing about military equipment] are doing it. Anyway, today we have the US Air [and, for the moment, Space Force--they haven't fully separated yet], and, surprisingly for once, a somewhat more positive message. I'm sorry this one took so long; I've been busy for the past month or so, but I figured I should get this one out I already had 80% done before talking about Turkey and the war in the Caucuses, which are likely to be shorter, more current, and arrive sometime in the next week if all goes as planned.

Current Effortposts In My Series:
  1. What you [might] need to know about South Korea's ludicrous arms buildup
  2. We shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches.... uh, what do we do after that again?: The Perilous Defensive Position of Taiwan
  3. "You've hit another cargo ship? The Problems with the US Navy: Not all of them begin with "Seven" and end with "th Fleet"."
  4. Will China's PLAN survive contact with the enemy?
  5. Biden's New START and modern nuclear war
  6. Boned: Problems (but not too many) in the US Air [and Space!] Force
  7. Erdogan Sallies Forth [inserted largely on account of the recent breakout of a war between Armenia and Azerbaijan]
  8. Begun, the Drone Wars Have: Why You Should Pay Attention To This "Tiny" War
  9. First And Last Stand Of The Tin Can Navies [ASEAN + Australia and the smaller adversaries China may contend with]
  10. --Unnamed-- effortpost on Japanese military matters, mostly about how weird the JSDF status is
  11. --Unnamed--effortpost on Indian military matters, and why they can't focus on China or buy anything that works
  12. --Unnamed--effortpost on the rest of the PLA, mostly the air force though
  13. --Unnamed--effortpost on the rest of the US Armed Forces, mostly talking about how the marines are changing and the Army's new love affair with INF-busting weapons
  14. Conclusion?

1. Our Pride And Joy

America's Navy may be its key instrument of power projection abroad and in some ways the most important service branch, but the one that is by far the greatest beneficiary of American skill, the apex of our capabilities, is without a doubt the US Space Force. From Day 1 the US has had a commanding lead in the field. Mind you, that's not saying that nobody's ever challenged or exceeded the US in limited areas for limited periods of time--the early 1950s were about the last time that happened though [aside for commercial launch vehicles from around 1980-2010]. In the modern era, it is very rare that buying something other than an American-made aircraft or rocket makes any sort of economic or strategic sense [political is of course a different matter entirely]. The US Air Force has generally benefited from high, consistent levels of investment and has had relatively light burdens placed on it operationally [though in recent years post 9/11 this has changed to an extent], and it has developed into one of the best-trained and most doctrinally sophisticated forces in the world. More on that later. Anyway, the Air Force is probably the best-loved branch politically [Marines might be more respected but they get budgetary scraps], at least of the military as a whole, and it ends up with more funding, smarter people, and a much better QOL as a result. In fact Air Force personnel are usually treated to quite a bit of envy and ribbing about how much better their conditions are than their Army, Marine, or Navy counterparts.

2. Aging Equipment [again!]

Guess what? The same problem that seems to afflict most of the US military [and, for that matter, most European, Latin American, and non-East Asian militaries] is aging equipment from the Cold War finally wearing out. In the Air Force, this takes a number of different forms. Often, it's a case of "if it ain't broke, don't fix it", but even then airframes do wear out eventually and need replacement and a lot of them are getting to that point.
Logistics, Support, That Kind of Thing
One of the least glamorous parts of the Air Force, logistical and support capabilities are rapidly aging. The primary airframe the Air Force uses for these is the.. wait for it... Dash 80, as the C-135 whose commercial variant is better known as the Boeing 707. It was a very impressive aircraft, but it was designed in the 1950s. Even though we've reengined the C-135 with more modern engines, and done some serious overhauls, they're getting pretty long in the tooth. Most notably we have the 398 KC-135 Stratotankers which make up the bulk of the US midair refueling fleet, which are joined by 31 E-3 Sentry AWACs, a number of specialized RC-135 derivatives doing everything from SIGINT to hunting for nuclear weapons and 17 E-8 Joint STARS. While these were produced up until the early 1990s, the airframes are aging and they need replacements, and the sheer quantity of aircraft is likely to cause trouble. There are also other aircraft that have to be replaced in the mid-term [by the early 2040s] like the C-5 Galaxy and the KC-10 Extender, but these are somewhat less of an immediate concern. There are some C-130 Hercules replacements also needed but those are largely being done with newer versions of the same aircraft.
Bombers
The B-1 Lancer is first on the chopping block, due to high maintenance costs and time [it generally takes 120 hours of maintenance for an hour of flight time]. That represents 60 bombers, on paper anyway, and a good chunk of the USAF's supersonic strike capability. However, cutting it should free up resources for new hardware, and in fact new USAF budget proposals suggest rapidly retiring the B-1. The B-2 Spirit is also on the chopping block due to high price and high maintenance demands, but it can't really be replaced until the B-21 Raider shows up. There is also a need to find a replacement for the B-52, but nobody is really sure what that looks like and it's much less urgent--the B-52 will soldier on for the indefinite future and may well hit a full century in operational service. Even if one runs into the "airplane of Thesus" the fact that you could well have fourth or fifth generation B-52 pilots flying on 90-year-old aircraft is, to be honest, kind of neat.
Fighters
The F-15 and F-16 originally took flight in the 1970s and are still seeing interest today, though the modern F-15 and F-16 are very different beasts from their originals. However, the overall fleet is starting to age--primarily the F-15C fleet operated by the US Air National Guard which does air policing in the US. This is why the Guard is actually first in line for new F-15EX aircraft and has even received brand new F-35s [that, and the fact that the Air National Guard is actually pretty integrated with the Air Force]. F-16s are also starting to wear out; the USAF still operates over a thousand of the type. They are set to primarily be replaced with the F-35, though, with around 1500 aircraft on order. They will also replace the A-10 [along with drones, I suppose], and I'll take a moment to say that the A-10 is heavily overrated, there's a reason the USAF wants to dump it, and it's notorious for friendly fire incidents. Its job would be better done by drones or even aircraft like the Super Tucano.
Trainers
These are, guess what, also wearing out. The USAF currently operates over 500 T-38 Talon trainers, but it already has a replacement lined up for this aircraft which was first flown in 1959. It just adds to the list of things that need replacing.
ICBMs
Also should mention these, I suppose. The US is currently operating the Minuteman-III) as its sole ground-based nuclear deterrent/ICBM, and these 1970s-era missiles have survived their replacement, the LGM-118 Peacekeeper. They have to be replaced as well, and the USAF actually recently awarded a contract to do so to Northrop Grumman [though there are issues with that mentioned below].
Maintenance
One side-effect of all this is that the Air Force has increasingly high demands for maintenance which are simply not met, which combined with a shortage of maintainers [partially due to good outside pay but mostly because anecdotal reports suggest life as an Air Force maintainer is terrible] means that the Air Force has a poor readiness rate, especially because a lot of airframes aren't in good condition to begin with, having been worn out by decades of use.

3. Procurement Woes... fixed?

So, the Air Force has had a pretty troubled history with procurement in recent years. By far the most infamous one is the F-35. Well, yes, the F-35 was a procurement disaster. Another Redditor has done a great service by writing up the account Ash Carter [Secretary of Defense under Obama] gave of the program. It's long [full version here] and probably doesn't give a full account as it is Carter's memoir--but I'll just pick out one of the most significant parts of it:
At one point of the meeting, after we'd made it abundantly clear that the grossly inflated price for the JSF jets was unacceptable, CEO Bob Stevens casually said to me, "Well, if you tell me how much money you have, I'll tell you how many planes you can buy."
I was taken aback. Rather than negotiating a fair price with us, Stevens was behaving as if his company were entitled to all the money the taxpayers could afford. And although he obviously had a per-plane price in mind, he didn't care to divulge it openly, nor would he agree to a fixed-price contract holding him to it. I found this cavalier attitude offensive. With deeper disrepute, the JSF program would go down the political drain, and we wouldn't be able to buy any of these needed aircraft.
With all this in mind, I let his question hang in the air unanswered for a moment. Then I replied, "How about none?" With that, I walked out of the room. "None" was a reasonable prediction in the political climate surrounding this out-of-control program.
However, the F-35 was a pretty uniquely messed up procurement program due to suffering from what I'd broadly call "jointness", where interservice procurement made things less efficient.

The Air Force on its own has had some pretty impressive procurement messups though. Look no further than the KC-46 Pegasus, a tanker designed to replace the KC-135 [as mentioned above loads of these are getting retired in the next couple years]. The first sign of trouble probably should have been when the first program to replace the tankers with the KC-767 [now the KC-46] was cancelled on account of a bribery scandal involving the CFO of Boeing offering the procurement official an executive position. The second sign probably should have been the whole bit where, unlike its competitor, the A330 MRTT, the KC-767 didn't actually exist. And when the A330 won the contract bid, Boeing of course protested and, ultimately, got the contract evaluated again, with [at least per Northrop Grumman's claims, who was running a joint bid with Airbus] requirements rigged for the KC-767, and, finally, almost a decade after the program started, Boeing won the bid.

Except there was the small problem that Boeing hadn't built the plane yet, which turned into a large one. Ultimately the program was marred by years of delays and major technical problems. It only recently finally began delivering aircraft to the Air Force, years late and over-budget [though the USAF did manage to claw quite a bit of it back from Boeing].

However, there are some positive signs that future procurement will be better. Besides the F-35 being saved, there's the example of the T-X program, which is to replace the elderly T-38 Talon trainer. It invited foreign competition to the field, featured vigorous competition, and resulted in an actually effective aircraft--developed by both Boeing [of course] but also Saab--yes, the Swedes have a significant hand in the trainer jet likely to equip much of the world.

In particular, something very interesting the US Air Force is doing is diving heavily into computer design and open systems architecture. What this means, in short, is that they'll design new planes with a heavy emphasis on doing detailed computer design and simulation, only finally building an aircraft to demonstrate it works IRL--which of course cuts costs substantially--and they'll try to build common hardware and software that will work in any number of aircraft. The overall idea is to make aircraft inexpensive, easy to design, and modular. The Air Force even has a buzzword for this already, the "Digital Century Series", referring to the last time the Air Force very rapidly built a whole bunch of aircraft on a relatively common hardware platform. Whether this will bear fruit remains yet to be seen.

4. Fighting the Peer Conflict

The USAF, for the past thirty years, has not faced a peer competitor. Arguably it didn't even face one before that--the Soviet Air Force was no match for what the USAF could field, as was demonstrated quite well in a number of conflicts. The good news is that the USAF has had a long time to build up a lead, and is still far ahead of China or Russia, further ahead than the Army or Navy is by a long shot--Americans like their planes and electronics. For an illustrative example, China'sJ-20 stealth fighter has been produced in a quantity of... 50; while the USAF has almost 200 F-22s and is ordering over a thousand F-35s. The Su-57 barely even flies and is nowhere near peer to what the United States can field despite whatever scary articles you might have read. The bad news is that only recently has the USAF actually begun preparing to fight a peer conflict, which will tax it in different ways.

The main vulnerabilities the Air Force has in a peer conflict are more logistical and operational than regarding the quality of its aircraft or pilots, which are moreless unmatched. The first problem is that readiness isn't fantastic thanks to the War on Terror burning through all the ancient Cold War aircraft that the USAF has operated, and yes, aircraft do wear out. In fact, large numbers of F-15Cs operated by the US Air National Guard have been grounded due to age and fatigue. The shortage of maintainers also plays a role here. There's also the problem that the US Air Force is still quite vulnerable on the ground in any peer conflict; especially to precision strikes with ballistic and cruise missiles--the US Air Force has downsized considerably and now only has a handful of bases for both political and budgetary reasons, but that means that, when facing, for instance, China, the USAF must rely heavily on just six airfields--Osan, Kunsan, Misawa, Yokota, Kadena and Andersen [maybe bring that to 9 by adding USMC and Navy installations, which field fewer and less capable aircraft].

Thus, the primary challenge that the USAF faces is a quiet one--ensuring that it can operate from dispersed locations, at high opstempo, and repair its facilities rapidly. This is really also the biggest question mark in terms of the USAF's performance, but there's some reason to be optimistic here--the USAF is aware of the threat and is actually working to solve it. However, ultimately only changes in the political environment [the addition of bases in the Philippines or Palau, or the development of readied airfields in Japan] will fix the basing problem. Better ballistic missile defense will probably also help here. Russia or China will probably have poor luck against the USAF in the air; seeking primarily to deny the USAF free reign and thus the ability to support ground offensives, but they could cause significant damage by hitting ground facilities, and everyone knows it.

There's also the question of surface-to-air missiles; which have driven quite a bit of concern the past few years as China and Russia field increasingly capable systems like the S-400 and HQ-9. It is feared that the sophistication of these weapons could create "A2/AD bubbles" where the USAF and USN are unable to operate. While the access bubble does still look quite real for the Navy, recent developments have seriously called the efficacy of surface-to-air missiles into question--particularly the fact that the Israelis and Turks seem to be able to almost ignore them, or at least their shorter-range counterparts. The destruction of Armenian S-300 launchers by Azerbaijan with Turkish drones is certainly an ominous signal for anyone thinking advanced air defenses would keep them safe. How good the full-scale systems are against conventional targets is still unknown, but my guess is much less effective than the marketing--and keep in mind that despite years of concerns, SAMs have only been successful from about 1960-1980, and even then relatively minor adjustments in strategy seemed to significantly mitigate damage--so it's unclear how concerned we should actually be about such technology.

There are also questions about whether or not the USAF is operating the right mix of aircraft for the job, and these are valid ones. The USAF is buying new F-15EX, which has literally been described as not survivable after 2028 [though there is a case for the plane as a carrier of standoff weapons or a homeland defense fighter], and still operates the A-10 [an aircraft now mostly known for a number of notorious blue-on-blue (friendly fire) incidents] which, if used in a modern environment where the USAF didn't have total air supremacy, would simply not be able to survive. Yes, there's a reason the USAF wants to scrap the A-10, and no, the GAU-8 is cool but it doesn't even kill columns of modern main battle tanks. Unless you're primarily planning on fighting North Korea, the A-10 is close to useless(ly dangerous). The B-1 has also been highlighted as obsolete, largely due to high maintenance costs. However, the USAF is working hard to scrap these aircraft as fast as politically feasible.

5. New Technologies

The Air Force has always had a certain inclination towards adopting the newest, shiniest technologies, and at the moment there are a number of interesting concepts that it is exploring. I'll talk about two of the most significant ones [especially combined] here.

First, the Air Force is seeking to create future aircraft entirely virtually--using highly detailed computer models to design numerous types of specialist aircraft, and only building prototypes to test the results that simulations produce. Their latest trainer, the "eT-7", uses this methodology--the "e" is supposed to designate that it was designed this way. There's also a move towards using common avionics and software for a variety of different aircraft. Figures high up at the Pentagon have discussed a "Digital Century Series", modeled after a chain of fighters rapidly developed in the 1950s for a number of different roles, from the F-102 interceptor to the F-105 fighter-bomber. This could potentially create numerous new aircraft rapidly; a shift back towards the times before the 1990s where a single fighter project took the entire attention and budget of the Air Force. Nobody is really sure how this will pan out but it looks quite promising. In particular, the fact that the USAF was able to take its new prototype fighter jet into the skies a year after it was originally envisioned is stunning--and suggests that this potential return to the old days of the 1940s and 1950s when new aircraft showed up every year is not just a pipe dream.

Second, the Air Force is investing in UCAVs [Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles], most notably in the Skyborg concept. The goal is to develop a low-cost drone that can both deliver additional weapons to target while being accompanied by a manned fighter--a sort of drone wingman, which is cheap enough to be expendable [thus serving a secondary purpose, soaking up enemy air to air missiles]. Numerous companies have been awarded contracts to develop UCAVs and this program is looking quite promising, so expect to hear more of it in the future.

6. Drones

Drones are a rather interesting topic and one that I'll most likely get into more detail in on my next two posts specifically regarding Turkey. The US was one of the pioneers of UAVs, with the other big player in the field being Israel--in fact the US has bought Israeli drones from time to time, though of course China and Russia have also established a presence, without even mentioning Turkey. The US has a number of drones for different purposes--largely for reconnaissance of different types and precision-strike capability. It has the RQ-4 Global Hawk, for reconnaissance, the MQ-9A Reaper, for strike missions, and the RQ-170, which.... well, probably something involving reconnaissance, it's half-CIA so who knows. However, the US may not have kept up on the ongoing drone revolution, which is actually something I can't really blame them for since the 'revolution' only started in January. Yes. Last January.

This 'revolution' began on January 5, 2020, to be exact, and was led by an unlikely candidate: Turkey. They say necessity is the mother of invention, and this was certainly the case for the Turkish drone program. After the US refused to sell Turkey drones on account of the fact that they might be used against Kurds [use of Turkish drones suggests they definitely are used against Kurds], Turkey decided to make their own drone program with blackjack and hookers--or, well, just drones. Their DIY effort didn't really garner much attention until sent to Libya,but investment in their program skyrocketed, largely for two reasons. First, Turkey has been largely barred from major hardware acquisitions from the US and, to an increasing extent, Europe. Second, Erdogan deeply distrusts the Turkish Air Force and has dramatically cut pilot numbers through his multiple purges of the service. Third, Turkey is competing out of its class, against Russia, the UAE, and other major regional powers.

Once it arrived in Libya, it suddenly became clear that the Turkish drone program was much more important than previously thought. In many ways it bore the primary responsibility for turning the war around from what looked to be almost certain defeat for the UN-recognized GNA into a state where whether or not Haftar could survive was in question. In particular, it came as a great shock to most how easily Turkey defeated the very systems that were designed to shoot down UAVs--the Russian Pantsir in particular, which has been destroyed in great quantities with few Turkish casualties to show for it--and with the sticker price for a Turkish drone less than half of the Pantsir systems they kill, it could well revolutionize warfare. Experiences in Syria, and now in Armenia, where Turkish drones have destroyed hundreds of main battle tanks and casually destroyed SAM systems from some distance above, continue to bring into question just how vast the drone revolution is going to be. I'll cover this in more explicit detail in my next two posts.

However, the USAF is watching and learning--its main difficulty with drones is more political than anything. Drones are often considered less important than manned aircraft by a leadership that largely flew manned aircraft [particularly fighters at that], and it is the bottom tier of officer recruits that fly drones [though, interestingly, some drones are actually flown by enlisted pilots] and even then there's usually a shortage of RPA pilots--that's why a few are flown by enlisted in the first place. Whether or not they'll take these lessons to heart, only time will tell, but the history of the Air Force leaves me relatively optimistic on the matter--more than many other services, it's willing to embrace change.

7. Nukes

The US Air Force runs two legs of the nuclear triad--the air and ground portions. The first is dominated by, believe it or not, gravity bombs--mostly the B61. This weapon has been sitting around in the United States [and Europe under nuclear sharing, in Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and Turkey] for a while now, the first variants being made in 1968, and has recently been updated to the latest B61-12 variant, which offers high precision [as precise as JDAMs, not that it's likely to matter in most situations where nukes are being dropped] and flexibility--the bomb can be deployed from low altitudes at high speeds, and from within the internal weapons bay of the F-22 and F-35 [not to mention the B-2 and future B-21], so it's not as dumb as it might sound. Air-launched weapons also have useful features like the ability to recall them once launched, which isn't an option for missiles, along with fitting into doctrine for a tactical nuclear war. While I could go on about the lack of air-launched nuclear cruise missiles [which hopefully will be fixed by the end of the Intermediate Forces Treaty] it's not a big deal.

The main concern here [and perhaps a suggestion that procurement is still messed up] is the ground-based deterrent, which currently consists of a few hundred Minuteman III missiles buried in the northern central United States. These missiles, like much of the Air Force, date to the 1970s and have outlasted their supposed replacement--the MX Peacekeeper. These missiles are finally approaching end of life and are to be replaced by a new ICBM system. This process is... problematic. First off, it was a sole-source bid because Northrop Grumman acquired Orbital ATK Systems, the primary American producer of solid-fuelled rockets and missiles, and this resulted in Boeing pulling out of the competition. Second, the cost seems rather high, at least in my view, with lifetime cost estimates of as much as $90 billion, with development alone amounting to $13 billion at sticker price. It positions the cost of rebuilding the ground-based deterrent as comparable to the US Navy's program to replace the Ohio-class submarines with the Columbias. The ground-based deterrent has also lost substantial importance as sea-launched and air-launched weapons have become much more accurate and capable of fulfilling the ground-based counterforce mission [which arguably died with Peacekeeper], and it remains the most vulnerable portion of the triad. What good it does is largely as another independent nuclear deterrent and one that soaks up enemy warheads in the event of nuclear war that could be directed towards other targets. A disastrous procurement here could cause problems for the Air Force you will see in the future. My suggestion would be either to continue modernizing the Minuteman IIIs or aim to replace them with the cheapest option possible--something like, for instance, a land-based Trident missile [as if the Air Force would ever allow such a thing to be built]. All the ground-based deterrent needs to do is be there, be a credible threat, and soak up enemy fire. That's it.

8. Space Force

The Space Force is now its own service branch, but as it really hasn't emerged yet I'll cover it here. In fact, just recently, the Space Force enlisted its first trainees. This is somewhat less in my area of expertise; but at the moment things look fairly promising. While the Space Force sounds silly it's almost certainly the part of the military you interact with the most in your daily life on account of running the GPS network. They also operate a variety of communications satellites and the system for monitoring ballistic missile launches, among other pieces of hardware. Expect to hear more about these guys in the future, as space becomes a potential battlefield--we've seen the deployment of a space-based anti-satellite weapon by the Russians just recently, and numerous powers now field anti-satellite missiles along with jamming equipment that can blind reconnaissance satellites, so space is becoming much more militarily important. I don't have much more to say about these guys at the moment, though, other than noting that they're already talking about being even "less physical" than the Air Force--translation: Less mandatory exercise--and they're teaching classes about space law, which is neat I guess. The main downside of the Space Force is that it's going to be very small, around 20-30,000 people, which is half what even the Coast Guard fields, and that could lead to problems with maintaining personnel and inefficiencies with redundant missions, procurement, and the like.

9. Conclusion

The USAF has problems; particularly with aging equipment and manpower, but it seems to realize that most of them exist and is moving to address them. Political constraints mean that the USAF is stuck supporting a variety of obsolete platforms and investing its large budget poorly in new ICBMs and poorly managed tankers, and procurement continues to be a struggle for the USAF, though nowhere near as bad as with the US Navy. Drones have the potential to revolutionize warfare and the USAF is working to develop capabilities in that area, albeit maybe not as fast as some other players in the field, and digital design promises more aircraft designed and produced faster--much, much faster. The USAF faces logistical challenges in a peer conflict, but nothing insurmountable--though the work there is likely to be painful and sidelined because it's less interesting than buying shiny new toys. The Space Force seems to be going along well though they could face some problems in the medium term from losing access to the USAF's resources--political, financial, and of personnel--until/unless they develop into a larger, more influential service. On the whole, though, the outlook for the USAF, at least, looks quite bright--a hope spot, along with the Army and Marines, that the serious problems of the Navy will not cripple the entire military capability of the United States.

10. Citations

Uh, I mostly embedded them in the post, and I don't want to go back and hunt for what I used after a month, but here are some good longer-form ones:
RAND, Chinese Attacks on Air Bases in Asia on the ballistic missile threat
Ryan Snyder, The Future of the ICBM Force: Should the Least Valuable Leg of the Triad Be Replaced?

RAND, Creating a Separate Space Force mostly focusing on administrative difficulties and personnel issues

RAND, Drone-Era Warfare Shows the Operatoinal Limits of Air Defense Systems on drones and the conflicts in Libya and Syria [yes, it's all RAND, no Brookings Institute or such this time round]. It also explains why air defense systems are perhaps much more vulnerable than commonly thought, which I didn't really get into here.

Washington Post, Air Force seeks a radical shift in how jets, missiles, and satellites are designed with more detail on the shift to more computerized design the US Air Force wants to make

CSIS, The Air Force Digital Century Series: Beyond the Buzzwords taking apart the "Digital Century Series" push
submitted by AmericanNewt8 to neoliberal [link] [comments]


2020.10.26 00:12 llaverna Weekly Round-Up: October 19th - October 25th

Weekly Round-Up: October 19th - October 25th
/bangtan Weekly Round-Up
Previous thread: October 12th - October 18th
This round-up is for everything that happened in the /bangtan realm within the past week, compiled for your convenience! If you have feedback, please leave a comment or send me a PM.
The latest weekly round-up is linked on the sidebar of the subreddit. The link to the archive of past round-up posts can always be found in the wiki index.

News & Information

Date Thread
201019 BTS confirmed to attend The Fact Music Awards, which will be held online in December
201019 Sports Chosun: Upcoming BTS universe drama "YOUTH" directed by Kim Jaehong has confirmed cast
201019 RUN BTS! is coming back 10/20 Tuesday 9PM KST
201019 You can now connect your ARMY Bomb 'Ver.3' and 'MAP OF THE SOUL SPECIAL EDITION' to 'Airplane pt.2 -Japanese ver.-' Official MV
201021 NDTV, A Major News Channel In India, Will Televise An Upcoming Interview With BTS
201021 2021 GRAMMYs Nominations Will Be Announce On November 24th
201022 NDTV: BTS chatted with NDTV's @rohitkhilnani about music and more! Watch the full intv on Oct 30 on NDTV 24x7 and ndtv.com
201024 BTS Will Have An Interview On December 1st For The Grammy Mini Masterclass

Merchandise news

Date Thread
201020 Information on additional reservation time slots for BTS Pop-up: Map of the Soul Showcase in Seoul
201021 BigHit Official Merch: D-2 Check out our new products at the BTS POP-UP Online Store! 2020.10.23 11AM(KST)
201023 BTS Pop-up: Map of the Soul Online Store is now open via Weverse Shop USA and Global
201024 BTS Weverse announcement: BTS Popup, Map of the Soul Online Store Asia
201024 [BTS Weverse] [BTS POP-UP: MAP OF THE SOUL Showcase in SINGAPORE] GUEST INFORMATION & PURCHASING GUIDE (ENG)

Official Media

Type Date Link Thread
Bomb 201024 [BANGTAN BOMB] Musical Actors BTS Thread
Episode 201021 [EPISODE] BTS (방탄소년단) @ 62nd GRAMMY Awards Thread
Live 201020 Jimin Vlive: 저 왔어요 Thread
Live 201021 Jung Kook Thread
Live 201021 SUGA Vlive Thread
Magazine 201019 Weverse Magazine: “When the Walls Fell, 'Dynamite' Behind the Scenes” Thread
Magazine 201023 Weverse Magazine (Feature): When the Walls Fell Thread
Performance 201022 BTS (방탄소년단) 'Dynamite' @ America's Got Talent 2020 Thread
Photos 201023 BTS [MAP OF THE SOUL ON:E] Photo Sketch Thread
Run BTS! 201020 Run BTS! 2020 - EP.112 Thread
Run BTS! 201022 [Behind] Run BTS! - EP.112 Thread
Teaser 201020 BTS BE Concept Photo Thread

Official SNS

Date SNS Link Thread
201019 Weverse Compilation
201020 Twitter BTS Twitter Layout Has Changed to Dark
201020 All BTS have updated the layout on all their platforms Thread
201020 Weverse Compilation
201020 Weverse Taehyung Thread
201020 Twitter j-hope Thread
201023 Weverse Compilation
201024 Instagram BTS Official Instagram Story Thread
201024 Instagram BTS Official Instagram Story Thread
201024 Weverse Namjoon Thread
201024 Weverse Compilation
201024 Twitter SUGA Thread
201024 Weverse j-hope Thread
201025 Instagram BTS Official Instagram Story Thread
201025 Weverse Compilation
201025 Instagram BTS Official Instagram Story Thread

CF & Partnerships

Date Thread
201019 BTS X BODYFRIEND USA Videos
201020 Lemona x BTS Instagram Update
201020 FILA KOREA: BTS(방탄소년단) 'FILA ON THE STREET' - Teaser
201020 BTS / SYSTEM Last Collection 2020
201022 Samsung Mobile: RM Galaxy Buds Live
201022 [ENG] 💌 What is the JIMIN's way to Duty-Free? 🥳
201022 Samsung Mobile: Jin Galaxy Buds Live
201022 BTS x Samsung Galaxy Buds Live Compilation
201023 BTS(방탄소년단) ‘FILA ON THE STREET’ - Main

Articles

Date Publisher Article Thread
201020 Forbes Jessica Agombar On Co-Writing BTS’s ‘Dynamite’ And ARMYs: ‘The Support They’ve Got Worldwide Is Insane’ Thread
201020 MBW BTS Is #5 UMG's Biggest Revenue-Generating Artists In The First 9 Months Of 2020 After The Weeknd, Billie Eilish, King & Prince Thread
201020 LaineyGossip BTS Introduces Us to BE Era Thread
201020 Variety The Orchard CEO Brad Navin Explains Mechanics of New Partnership With Sony/ATV; the Secret of BTS’ Success Thread
201020 Foreign Policy China Backs Off From Fight With K-Pop Fans Thread

SNS Mentions

NOTE: Entries with 💜 have new content directly involving BTS
Date 💜 Link Thread
201019 STEVIE AIELLO mentions BTS Thread
201019 5yethree: Worked on the "Moon" Stage Set for Map of the Soul O:NE Thread
201019 💜 Lee Dam, child model from V's "Inner Child" performance at Map of the Soul ON:E Thread
201020 Columbia Records: Join the BTS Party (Spotify and Apple Music) Thread
201020 MAX Thread
201020 BTS Cutouts at Day 1 of the World Series Thread
201020 MLB Thread
201021 💜 V gifted Lee Dam (little boy from Inner Child performance) a huge teddy bear! Thread
201021 Lil Nas X Thread
201022 Famous Chef Reynold Poernomo From Masterchef Australia Make A Special Desert Paying Homage To BTS 'Borahae' Thread
201022 Kurt Elling Mentions V Thread
201022 Jimin Vlive message shared in tweet by Head of Communications and Chief Spokesperson for the United High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Thread
201024 The Late Show with Stephen Colbert has a message for BTS & J-Hope Thread
201024 MLB Thread

Other media

NOTE: Entries with 💜 have new content directly involving BTS
Type 💜 Date Link Thread
Cover 201018 [DANCE IN PARIS /SOUL TRAIN ver.] BTS (방탄소년단) - DYNAMITE Dance cover by RISIN' from France Thread
Cover 201023 AKMU Suhyun covers "Dynamite" on You Heeyeol’s Sketchbook (pre-release clip) Thread
Cover 201022 HONNE & Griff Cover of 'Dynamite' Thread
Video 201017 겟TV: Younha talks about her collaboration with RM Thread
Video 201021 Park Nae Ju (BTS' Hairstylist): BTS RM Dynamite Skyblue Hair Color Cover Thread
Video 💜 201023 BTS's acceptance speech for Asia Society's 2020 Asia Game Changers Award Thread
Video 201023 As A Build Up To Upcoming NDTV BTS Interview, Legendary Famous Indian Producer, AR Rahman Talks About BTS With NDTV Thread
Other 201022 CBS This Morning: Blue states are listening to BTS Thread

Milestones

Type Date Thread
Charts/Sales 201018 'Filter' has now achieved 110 #1's on iTunes Worldwide and is now the HIGHEST Charting BTS solo song and overall B-Side track in HISTORY on iTunes Worldwide!
Charts/Sales 201019 BTS 'Dynamite' Has Rises To New Peak On Apple Music Global At #3
Charts/Sales 201019 'Dynamite' is #5 on Billboard Hot 100 for its 8th week
Charts/Sales 201019 BTS' "Dynamite" extends its reign as the longest running #1 single on the Digital Song Sales chart this year (8th week; 44K sold)
Charts/Sales 201019 BTS' "Dynamite" returns to #1 on the Billboard Global 200 singles chart. It has spent 2 weeks at #1.
Charts/Sales 201019 'Dynamite' is #1 on both Billboard Global excluding US and Global 200
Charts/Sales 201020 BTS Is #1 For Billboard Artist 100
Charts/Sales 201023 ‘Skool Luv Affair’ aiming for top 10 album debut in the US, with 26K units sold following physical release
Charts/Sales 201024 [Compilation] Skool Luv Affair Special Addition re-release Wk 1 chart achievements
Charts/Sales 201025 Dynamite returns to #1 on Melon 24hit Chart
Likes 201022 Boy With Luv MV has now reached 19 million likes on YT! This makes BTS the first and only artist in history to have 2 MVs with 19M+ likes (Dynamite & BWL).
Likes 201023 BTS's 'Dynamite' Becomes the First Group MV to surpass 20 MILLION likes on YouTube
Likes 201025 “Dynamite” is now the most liked song on Melon in 2020 with >324,000 likes, surpassing “Eight”. Also fastest song in history to achieve this (just 65 days!)
Streams 201019 BTS 'Dynamite' Earns Biggest Streaming Day On Spotify Japan For Any Songs (328k)
Streams 201020 BTS's "2 Cool 4 Skool" has surpassed 200 MILLION streams on Spotify
Views 201020 "Dynamite" has now surpassed 500 million views on YouTube
Views 201024 BTS's 'Boy With Luv feat. Halsey' MV Has Become Their 2nd Music Video To Hit 1 BILLION Views On YouTube
Other 201022 BTS' profile picture in their official Facebook page hits 1M reactions in JUST 2 days, showcasing their rapid growth since MOTS: 7
Other 201022 “Dynamite” Becomes BTS’s First Song to Surpass an audience of 50 MILLION on Mediabase (Overall US Radio)

TinyTAN

Date Link Thread
201021 Have a BOO-tiful 👻 night with #TinyTAN Thread

BT21

Date Link Thread
201019 Everyone has their own dark secrets.... ⠀ 2020. 10. 21 11AM (KST) Thread
201021 BT21 ORIGINAL STORY EP.02 - COOKY & IAN Thread
201023 Memories may seem distant, so keep them close. Carry BT21 in your hands. ✨ Thread

BT21 merchandise news

Date Thread
201022 BT21 BABY Automatic Soap Dispenser

Misc

Date Thread
201020 English Translation and Korean vocab lesson with 마지막 (The Last) by Agust D
201020 I work for the Yamaha Corporation, and I recently pitched and helped create a BTS album for their Enspire player pianos! Here’s a clip of our rendition of “Run”.
201022 [Throwback] 6 years ago today, BTS released music video for "War of Hormone"
201023 [Throwback] 2 years ago today, RM released "mono." and music video for "forever rain"
201022 Unboxing and Comparison of SKOOL LUV AFFAIR (Special Edition) new re-release vs the original
201024 TWT: ᴮᴱBTS History₇ ComeBack Funds
201024 My local skating rink (in Florida) is having a BTS Skate Night!!
201025 MrBeast: And since the BTS community put in so much effort and this was all in good fun I’ll also give them $10,000. GGs all around❤️️

Subreddit

Rolling /bangtan Awards 2020 nomination form

Top Discussion Posts

  1. [+653] BTS gave me an appreciation for the rap genre
  2. [+177] What are your favorite subtle but very touching BTS interactions?
  3. [+88] Twitter accounts are getting copyright strikes for posting BTS related content
  4. [+73] What can we do to Hype the New BTS album ?
  5. [+64] Bangtan's vocal flavors

Weekly threads

Fanart

Here are past week's top 5 fanart posts from our sister subreddit, /heungtan!
Submitter Thread
ilumoone Taehyung drawing inspired by his song ‘Singularity’ 🎭 - getting into the Halloween mood!
lunasoleil9 Hopped on the glass album trend with my two favorite songs!
cigsandcola galaxy gguk fanart by me 💖✨💫 (apparently I posted in the wrong subreddit so here it is again :)))
Berrynatly Drawing inspired by Jimin’s Filter! ✨Ps: couldn’t decide with or without the mic so draw both versions 😂. All constructive criticism is welcomed 🤗
cigsandcola huge 2X4 foot taehyung piece I did in 2018; 66 hours of blood, sweat and tears ✨✨
submitted by llaverna to bangtan [link] [comments]


2020.10.25 13:04 KiraFeh (1.5 CN Anniversary) 2020 Arknights Thank-You Celebration Stream Megathread

The Stream for Arknights CN's 1.5 Anniversary (Thank-You Celebration) has ended, and here is the information revealed in the stream.
(Read this post on new reddit if you want to see embedded images.)
Chapter 8: Roaring Flare
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Schwarz, Hellagur and others added to Recruitment Pool
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New Limited Banner: Forget Me Not
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New Operators:
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Rosmontis
https://preview.redd.it/p98j9870h8v51.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=59e46595a23c137558d668fab3130a12599d639b
Mudrock
https://preview.redd.it/dmdnkr9lh8v51.png?width=1249&format=png&auto=webp&s=5120b6694ee389772cd3ec298f721e3b81d6bac5
Joint Action
New Event: Paradox Simulation
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Mountain E2 Art: Link
Kafka E2 Art: Link
Future Lava Art: Link
New Operator Costumes
https://preview.redd.it/bbbc7oc7x8v51.png?width=1560&format=png&auto=webp&s=c3deae59cbb56f94be3476f97ed64922515b8809
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Dobermann Costume: Link
Ethan Costume: Link
Amiya Operator Class Change
https://preview.redd.it/sbnuchwkg8v51.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=de735f8e68c1d1afe456a87d46b317350f78d139
Free Limited 10-Roll Ticket & One Free Single Pull Everyday
https://preview.redd.it/exgooq49z8v51.png?width=1560&format=png&auto=webp&s=0242e0f303169f32f142a5604e7b3d22a9bf2c53
Login Bonus
https://preview.redd.it/bzmgpr1gz8v51.png?width=1560&format=png&auto=webp&s=ae59ddceddf3c99986f0fa794f4c03c7e5dc444a
Furniture
Limited Time Premium Packages for Sale
https://preview.redd.it/y7785urgn9v51.png?width=1560&format=png&auto=webp&s=96b0a2f42dc1b4a2d1dc119c630552021ce1541f
Annihilation Update
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Contingency Contract #3: Operation Cinder
https://preview.redd.it/c1bblp2x49v51.png?width=1560&format=png&auto=webp&s=c33e436a691ee2f6108de6f54c113f1afd7e1d3a
Rainbow Six Siege Collab
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Merchandise
https://preview.redd.it/qn93lg9sm8v51.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=db2f44d0053349629197ac4b8370e64ed9a23e30
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Real-life Music Event
https://preview.redd.it/7wxttnj4p8v51.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=4132a4a2aab88793da3a48b9d02dbf7b42af5c18

Other News

Edit: Forgot to add this for a while, but a new system will be implemented where operators will get more backstory. They are only adding around 10 operators at first, one of which is apparently Shirayuki.
submitted by KiraFeh to arknights [link] [comments]


2020.10.25 12:20 Jamesaga17 PC build for programming and gaming. First ever PC build

What will you be doing with this PC? Be as specific as possible, and include specific games or programs you will be using.
I’m a computer science student that has a work term In software Test engineering coming up in a couple of months so I’ll probably be doing lots of programming. For personal projects I’m making my own games in Unity (and maybe Unreal Engine down the line). I’m also switching over from console so I want to have a good build to get into PC gaming with. I would plan on playing games like Rainbow Six: Siege, Overwatch, Call of Duty: Warzone.
What is your maximum budget before rebates/shipping/taxes?
$1500-$2000 CAD.
When do you plan on building/buying the PC? Note: beyond a week or two from today means any build you receive will be out of date when you want to buy.
As soon as possible, so I want to figure out which parts I need in the next couple of days.
What, exactly, do you need included in the budget? (ToweOS/monitokeyboard/mouse/etc)
Tower, monitor, keyboard and mouse, OS.
Which country (and state/province) will you be purchasing the parts in? If you're in US, do you have access to a Microcenter location?
British Columbia, Canada.
If reusing any parts (including monitor(s)/keyboard/mouse/etc), what parts will you be reusing? Brands and models are appreciated.
None.
Will you be overclocking? If yes, are you interested in overclocking right away, or down the line? CPU and/or GPU?
No.
Are there any specific features or items you want/need in the build? (ex: SSD, large amount of storage or a RAID setup, CUDA or OpenCL support, etc)
None that I’m aware of (any suggestions based on what I intend to use the PC for are appreciated as I’m pretty oblivious to this stuff at the moment).
Do you have any specific case preferences (Size like ITX/microATX/mid-towefull-tower, styles, colors, window or not, LED lighting, etc), or a particular color theme preference for the components?
Mid-tower, prefer white over black but I’m fine with either, windows, and LED lighting options would be cool but not a priority.
Do you need a copy of Windows included in the budget? If you do need one included, do you have a preference?
Yes and no preference. The copy of Windows would be considered separate from the $2000 max budget.
Extra info or particulars: I want to see single and dual monitor options, both of which are not on the higher price tag range while also still being a solid monitor.
submitted by Jamesaga17 to buildapcforme [link] [comments]


2020.10.23 21:10 EbolaBooze [FANFICTION] Drinking Wine (Atop a Lonely Peak)

Writer's block is a strange thing for me - I can write plenty of things around what I'm stuck on, just not the piece in particular... Anyhoo hope you enjoy this nonsense. Probably would be post Arknights Chapter 8?
Anyway, interpersonal stuff is my weakest area, any commentary is good commentary.
>>>>>>
It was a little erhu; a gift from a Yen refugee, hand-carved, whittled and crafted from scraps. A few tentative notes drawn out, morphing into scales, then a mournful, powerful tune that half-forgotten memory alone carried. Perhaps I imagined it, but the air carried the scent of blood and burning flesh along with the sound of strings.
Wǒ zì guānshān diǎn jiǔ qiānqiū jiē rù hóu~, gèng yǒu fèi xuě zhuó yǔ fēngyún mǒu~~” Faint, a new but familiar voice, more heard barking orders than laughing, let alone singing. “Wǒ shì qiānlǐ gùrén qīngshān yīng bái shǒu~, niánshào yóu jiè yín qiāng chěng fēngliú~~~
It was a clear, beautiful voice that accompanied me, the refrain ringing out across the upper deck.
“Madam Ch’en. I must be insulting you with my meagre skills.” I had matched my last note to hers, before stopping.
“Meagre or no, It’s a favourite of mine.” She sat down next to me; tail wrapped around her midriff for warmth. “Won’t you continue?”
“Hm. Then, my price for hearing the Doctor of Rhodes Island perform for a private audience will be that you and your vocal talents accompany me for a drink, until the wine is finished.” I gestured grandly to the spirits warming in a borrowed heating mantle, the re-purposed lab equipment keeping it at the perfect temperature.
Ch’en sniffed at the air, a faint smile coming onto her face. “Tch, such an exorbitant price, but the performance is so rare that I cannot help but spend. You are the senior here, so let me pour.”
She cut me off before I had the chance to grab the bottle, well-practiced motions not wasting a drop as two cups were poured.
“Sly. Though, if this is your way of presenting apologies, there is no need.”
“So, I was justified in insulting and belittling someone who’s command was more than competent, who’s personnel were instrumental in safeguarding my city? Your achievements notwithstanding, let me have some face and drink the cup I have poured.”
All that was said with her own face turned away from me, cup held steadfastly at the ready with military precision.
Wán xiǎolóng…” The stubborn little dragon had a point. I touched my cup against hers and drank, savouring the fine wine. I did have a predilection for Lungmen spirits, as well as whisky, it seemed.
“Hmph, we are not yet so close that you can call me by a pet name without cost.”
“Yet, huh?”
“Don’t test your luck, even as good as it is, Doctor.”
A few notes of prelude, and she sang once more, the strong wine giving her voice a charming, smoky tone. It suited her. It was at the third verse that I couldn’t help myself joining in, a rusty baritone-bass harmonising badly with the erhu more than her.
It was only after we finished that I saw her smile, faint hints of amusement more than anything else. “I’m glad to know that the Doctor is not skilled at literally everything that he attempts.” It was said with a toast, a good portion of the wine gone to her by now, her cheeks rosy. Tactical to the end, she had used the opportunity of both my hands being occupied to get ahead of me in cups.
“Certainly not as good as you when it comes to drinking.” Out went my rejoinder, accompanied by another cup downed.
“I will only have two vices in life; alcohol is the first, and I have not chosen the second.” She said righteously, toasting me with that statement as wine sloshed dangerously close to the lip of her cup.
“Only two vices? How restrained.”
“Oh? If I were to pick two for you, they would have to be women and war. You’re a natural lady-killer, in both senses of the expression.”
“I won’t deny war, but women? I don’t even have a lady’s favour, let alone any keepsakes squirrelled away in my office. For the other meaning? Let’s not ruin the taste of the wine, shall we?” I brought out a second bottle of the same, replacing the old in the heating mantle and taking it for myself, drinking from it directly.
“You’re right, my apologies.” I didn’t bother seeing what sort of expression Ch’en wore, my eyes skyward.
We stargazed for a long, quiet moment, looking for light through the clouds as I finished the bottle, only a few mouthfuls left. Not as bitter as I thought it would be.
“It is remarkably lonely at the pinnacle is it not, Doctor?” She was swirling the bottle she had swiped in the meantime around idly, staring out into the distance.
“I wouldn’t know.” A non-answer, more fuelled by curiosity than drink.
She took another swig before wiggling the bottle at me teasingly. “Come now, Doctor. A drink, an answer, a question. Indulge this troublesome dragon.”
I held my hand out in acceptance of the game, and the bottle was passed over, faint marks of lip-gloss on the top. I drank, and pondered my answer. “One can’t be lonely at the pinnacle, if they are one with the mountain.” There, an answer in a non-answer. “When did you change your mind about Rhodes Island?”
The bottle was immediately snatched back. “Don’t look down on me with such an easy question, Doctor. It started midway through, after you’d beaten Reunion back from the outskirts after putting Skullshatterer down the first time.”
“More an execution, yes.”
“You could have cited contract breach then and there and simply left, gone to Rim Billiton, or Victoria, or any other one of the independent cities. Why did you stay at Lungmen?”
“I wanted to see what Kal’tsit had planned. Amnesiac, remember? Besides, the freshest Reunion trails led to Lungmen.” I took my drink, and pondered my question. “I heard through the grapevine that you spent a decent amount of your youth in the Royal Victorian Guard Academy. Which unit were you attached to?”
She quickly took a swig, answering quickly. “Still soft balling? First Hadrian Fusiliers, MP. What, did you know someone from the Victorian Army?”
I took my own drink, Ch’en giving me a glare and a huff as she conceded the point. “In a manner of speaking, yes.” I wiggled the bottle at her. “I’ll let you ask another question, that wasn’t fair of me.”
Thankfully, she rolled her eyes and took the bait. “Which unit did you spend the most time with in Victoria?”
More alcohol, mission accomplished. “First Army, Royal 3rd Battalion, Black Watch.”
A single eyebrow raised. “That’s a heavy assault unit. If you cut your teeth there, it’s no wonder you’ve scythed through all that stood in your way.”
I shook my head. “That was a lifetime ago, and I was in the combat medical division.” It was the truth even, old unit patches I had kept that lined up with various dossiers that Rhodes Island had collected on me. I’d yet to see if Ch’en would ask about my time in the Notary.
“I thought you carried yourself like a soldier. Well before our time, I suppose, but I’m sure you and Bagpipe could share stories if you ever remember.”
“Oh, not willing to share any of yours then?”
“Not without price.” Ch’en gave the bottle a considering look, before raising her eyebrows at me.
“I’m sure Bagpipe has more than a few regarding you that she’d happily share.” Certainly not in the spirit of this little drinking game, but I had an inherited reputation to maintain. Ch’en huffed and glared, conceding the point. “Beyond the obvious, what are you doing here, with Rhodes Island? Surely other places are better equipped.”
Ch’en swiped the bottle before considering it in her hand, a generous swig before placing it back into the heating mantle. “Would you believe me if I said it was solely to hone my edge?” A carefully neutral expression. Ch’en would be terrible at poker.
“You’re more than blooded enough for the L.G.D., and I strongly doubt you’d be chasing monsters in my shadow. Try again, xiǎolóng.” Chasing Tallulah was a given, what else was the question.
Swire was here as well; a gesture of solidarity between the Lungmen Police Department and Rhodes Island, training up viable candidates to enlarge their recruitment pool. She was earnest and transparent, looking for opportunity and assets wherever she went.
“What would you say if I didn’t want to answer that further?”
“We haven’t decided on a forfeit. I’m the sort to have too many questions, all of them too personal.” I took the wine jug in my hand, ready to drink.
“So sporting of you, Doctor, being so boldfaced about prying into my personal life. Hm, how about three drinks if you don’t wish to answer?” She shifted, trying to peer under my hood.
“You just want more of my wine.”
“Swear by my badge of office that is only a minor part of the reason.” Her eyes were still as sharp as the barbs she traded, and it would be my turn with the bottle. “I’ll even let you ask another question.”
“Wine thief. Savour it then, this is the last in my stash.”
“Ah, I suppose I will have to be honest then. You’ve grown expert in twisting my arm, and you’ve barely spent two weeks in contact with Chairman Wei.” She hugged a leg to herself, head resting on her knee, taunting grin firmly affixed.
“I’m not sure if I should be proud or insulted.”
“Ask your question so I can take my drink.” She snatched the jug out of my hand and placed it back into the heating mantle.
I thought for a few long seconds, before deciding to turn her first question back onto her. “Do you stand at your own pinnacle, or are there yet mountains to conquer?”
Ch’en drank without hesitation, quickly responding. “There’s always a higher mountain, Doctor. At least, I should hope so. There are two for me so far, neither of which I care to name.”
“Fair. Over to you then.”
“In that Chernobog sub-city. My forces withdrew early. Your operators are remarkably loyal to you Doctor, one of your operators had the guts to call me out over it.”
“I’m not surprised, and that’s not a question.”
“Hush, I’m getting to it. Tell me, honestly, what you thought then.”
That was a difficult one. I placed the wine back down, pondering it as I searched for an answer. Not answering would be a mistake. We made it back in time, Swire and a few willing operators working with Lungmen buying the time we needed.
“I thought you were soft, Ch’en.” I drank, and placed the wine back down as I felt her shift. “I hoped you would read that AAR, find out what, who we were up against. Every combatant is an asset to be spent. Never carelessly, never needlessly, always extracting the highest price possible.” I looked over, saw her staring at clenched fists. “As much as it showed the shallowness of Lungmen’s strategic vision, I thought that you made the right decision for yourself, but only if you were aiming to preserve lives over anything else, even victory.”
She had flinched a little at that last part. “Your operators certainly didn’t think so. Still, I’m glad that you, Blaze and Amiya came to my aid on that rooftop.”
“I’m disappointed that I was in no shape to take Mephisto’s head then and there. Apparently, I’ve killed better men for less.” More the pity was that he had gotten away then and there. “With all that he did, I would have taken his mangled corpse over any intel, actionable or no.”
“Hahah! Ah, if you’d shown that side of yourself when we first met, I don’t think we would’ve had so many difficulties to start with.”
“I didn’t think that a mere mountain of bones long left in the past was enough to win a princess of Lungmen over.”
A snort of derision. “You and I both know that for you, those skulls are cheap currency.”
“Not denying the princess comment, xiǎolóng?”
“Fine wine, an overlooking view all my own, and being able to rub a night spent with you in Swire’s face? You’re giving me the royal treatment, Doctor.” Her face looked pleasantly flushed, a far cry from her normally serious, guarded expressions.
“Ch’en, Swire’s a nice girl. You shouldn’t bully her so.”
“Bah!” She waved me off, obviously intent on riling the poor Feline girl up. “Ask your question, I’m sobering up.”
Time to ruin this nice evening. I still wasn’t truly sure of where Ch’en’s loyalties lay, and I’d crafted enough of a story tonight. I wanted her to know that I was amnesiac, not a fool. “What was your relationship with Tallulah?”
She froze as soon as I asked, taking three long gulps immediately before setting the bottle back down. As expected, really.
“I didn’t expect you to be so bold, Carnifex.” There it was. Though, she was only the third person to call me by that particular callsign. She’d done a decent amount of digging.
“Surety of purpose, and violence of action.” I took a drink. “Go on, ask your question.”
“Hmph. I won’t be so easily baited, Doctor. You win this round, though I’m not surprised.”
I hadn’t expected her to concede defeat so easily, though her flush had reached her ears and down her neck by now. “You’re twenty years and at least two wars too early. Maybe once you’ve walked the path of daggers for a few more winters we’ll be on equal standing.”
Two wars? Now isn’t that interesting.” She stood and stretched, shirt riding up and jacket falling off her shoulders as she considered me for a moment. “Hold still and don’t stab me, would you?”
“No pro- What? Why?” She had walked around and all but draped herself over me, a rush of roasted cinnamon and wine, a hint of ginseng. I’d had one hand in the crook of her elbow, my other arm chambered to strike before I stopped myself.
“Heheh, just grabbing some of your scent. Gotta make it seem authentic for tomorrow.” I couldn’t see her expression, but she was sounding particularly smug.
“I’m not going to help you out, but I will be making my rounds of the second floor from about 0915.” There, a tacit warning to either start after I was gone, or be finished before I arrived. I pointedly ignored the pleasant warmth of her marking me with her own scent.
“Mmm, much obliged, Doctor.” She waved one arm in farewell as she wandered off, the drink giving her hips more sway than usual.
Poor Swire, she really was a nice girl; a little naive, a little abrasive, and lacking just a little self-awareness. I’d have to run damcon afterwards, for sure.

The next morning I was greeted by the sounds of a crouching tiger fighting a hidden dragon, a second floor common-area having been half-converted into an office for Ch’en and Swire, a gaggle of my operators peering around the corner, some of them wincing at the content of the language being thrown around inside. I stacked up behind them, eavesdropping ears at the ready.
“-well, all the money in the world can’t buy hearts now, can it?”
“Eat shit! At least I don’t have to bully my subordinates into following me!”
“How’s the dating scene for you then? Been dumped in the middle of a hookup a few more times?”
“Oh, like you’re any better, you frigid bitch!”
“I’ll have you know that I had a wonderful night last night.”
Oh no, Ch’en, I thought you were better than this.
“What, with a bottle of wine and a drawer of sex toys? Ugh, miss me with the details.”
“Projecting much, Swire? I’ll tell you this for free; my night started on the top deck of Rhodes Island, cuddled up to the Doctor for warmth.” Ch’en lied as naturally as she breathed.
I alternated between throat-cutting and mouth-zipping signs directed at the crowd of heads that swivelled towards me, Ptilopsis almost making a clean one-eighty around, normally sleepy eyes now bright.
“Oh, pull the other one, it’s got bells on it.” She sounded unsure. Don’t take the bait, senior tigerintendant!
“Mm, he performed with the erhu, I sang, we drank, and then~ we~ played~~.” She drew the last word out, somehow managing to make our entirely innocent espionage drinking game into something lewd.
There were at least three thumbs up from the other side of the door- Nine Hells, Midnight if you spread this around-
“P-played what, exactly?”
“Don’t give me that innocent act, how else does a woman play with a man who’s serenaded her for an evening, and laid her bare before him?”
Apparently by ruining his already bad reputation further! No, I was putting a stop to this, I may not have much of value but my good name amongst the combat operators was one of the few things left. Unfortunately, as I moved, I was betrayed from an unexpected angle. Rangers! I thought we were friends!
“Y-y-y-y-you! You didn’t! You’re lying!”
“Oh, he certainly wasn’t gentle with me, but he was generous. The Doctor didn’t hesitate to fill both my mouth and belly.”
I did my level best to hate everyone stacked up on the opposite doorframe to death with my glare- Midnight you wipe that shit-eating grin off your face right now or I’ll have you on lavatory duty-
You’re horrible!” Swire’s voice cracked a little with that exclamation. “I bet you didn’t even spend any time with him!”
“Hm hmm, can’t you smell him all over me?”
That’s it. Diplomatic incident or no, I was sending both of them back. I’d take Rhodes to Columbia, retire, maybe plant a vineyard- Rangers, Rangers are you giving me a thumbs up while crying?!
There was an outraged yowl and that was my cue to move; breaking Rangers’ stance and swapping our positions with a pivot, three steps bringing me around the corner and crashing into Ch’en’s back as she skipped backwards a step, instinctively grabbing her to correct both our balance.
Ch’en had wrapped her tail around my arm, drawing circles on my raised hand with the soft tuft at the end. “Doctor, you beast~. Not in public.”
“Lecher, womaniser, dissolute! Get bitten by a rabid dog and die!” With that cursing, Swire spun away to sit at her own desk, utterly ignoring us. Naturally, Ch’en let out a self-satisfied chuckle as she sat herself down in front of her day’s work, leaving me to the operators outside. I didn’t even get a word in edgewise.
Naturally, I didn’t find out until much later that Ch’en was using me as an accessory to revenge; some incident from their earlier career in the L.G.D. that needed retaliation. Ah yes. When it came to women, I was truly alone on my peak of idiocy.
submitted by EbolaBooze to LoreKnights [link] [comments]


2020.10.22 10:07 HaplessScribbler Trans-friendliness at the T14

Hi everyone, it’s your local stressed out trans guy splitter here with an effortpost.
I've been looking up info about the trans-friendliness of various T14 law schools, and I thought I might as well compile it into a post for myself as well as the other trans people I've noticed floating around LSA. Also, I didn’t want to work on my personal statement.
LSAC sent out a survey to all of the ABA accredited law schools about LGBTQ diversity in 2018, which is where I'm primarily taking this info from, supplemented by google and comments I’ve read on LSA.
Please feel free to add info about non-T14 schools in the comments. I've limited my summaries of the survey responses to the T14 because those are the schools I'm personally interested in and a man has limits.
Georgetown:
Georgetown chose not to fill out the survey. That worries me and makes me think they’re either trying to hide something or so apathetic they can’t bother to copy-paste in their antidiscrimination policy. If Pepperdine and Notre Dame can fill it out, then so can you Georgetown.
edit: based on comments below my guess is trending towards "apathy".
Georgetown does have an easy to read map of unisex bathrooms on their website, and I was able to find some classes related to LGBTQ civil rights in their online course catalog. There was also this post from a trans student at Georgetown, who seemed overall satisfied with the way the University was treating them.
Cornell:
I looked up the one prof they have listed under "Openly LGBT faculty members" but it isn't clear how she identifies. I find it hard to believe that there's only one out professor on the staff, but maybe she's the only person who volunteered to have her name listed?
They have a clinic for LGBTQ law.
They only have one unisex bathroom. If you've ever been to Cornell's campus, you'll know that it's huge, so that is concerning. I couldn't get their bathroom map to work for me, so I was unable to check if it is in a central location or in some far-off corner. (edit: a Cornell student commented, saying that the bathroom is centrally located). Unfortunately, their one bathroom is still better than the next school, because…
Northwestern:
Has no unisex bathrooms in the law school. Not one! I checked their website to see if that had changed since 2018, and the only unisex bathroom on the Chicago campus is two blocks away in the medical school. I guess people who don't pass yet/ are nonbinary are expected to wear diapers?
They also put less effort into filling out the survey than any of the other schools (unless you count Gtown), giving one-word answers to all but the very last question.
Duke:
They have a map of unisex bathrooms throughout the campus. There looks to be quite a few! Good for you, Duke. I was worried about Duke being in the South but this is very encouraging.
Like Cornell, Duke only lists one Prof as being out, but again, I suspect that he volunteered to be the example and isn't the Only Gay (tm). Unclear how he identifies.
Their answers imply that they have only one class related to LGBTQ issues.
UVA:
They claim to have unisex bathrooms on the survey, but when I looked at their bathroom map there were none marked in the law school. The closest is in an athletic rec center that is a 5 minute walk away. There are unisex bathrooms elsewhere on campus but it seems misleading at best to answer "yes" to that question on the survey.
Berk:
Looks like they have one unisex bathroom per building in the Law School- except for the Law Library, weirdly. May be a problem if you suffer from the Mariko Aoki Phenomenon.
Their answers imply that they have only one class related to LGBTQ issues, which seems odd considering that this is Berkeley we’re talking about.
Michigan:
They say they have unisex bathrooms, but I was unable to find a map. If anyone has a link to that, or can tell me how many of the buildings have them, please let me know.
Lists 4 profs as openly LGBTQ, instead of just one example or leaving it at a "yes", when asked if they have queer profs. Their specific identities are unclear. They also go into a lot of detail about 4 different LGBTQ-related courses at the school.
At the very end of the survey, under Additional Information, they note that Michigan was "the first law school to graduate an out-transgender person". I'm not sure how they know that, but it's neat.
They also promise to connect all of their admits who identified as LGBTQ on their app with a student active in OUTLaw.
Overall I get the impression that they took the survey really seriously and put a lot of thought into filling out. Their answers are the longest of any of the T14.
Dean Z explicitly talks about using they/them as a singular pronoun on her YouTube channel so that's another piece of evidence that says they're thinking about the needs of their trans and nonbinary students. (She's fine with it for both nonbinary people and as a replacement for he/her, if you were wondering.)
Penn:
Looks like they have unisex bathrooms in 3/4 of the law school buildings.
They list a single prof as being out (unclear how he identifies), and five courses related to LGBTQ issues.
I also found an article written by a pair of Penn 2Ls about the university being sued by a woman claiming to have been fired for being trans. Rather than saying she was fired for other reasons, Penn filed a motion claiming that gender-identity discrimination was not illegal (this was in 2019, so pre-Bostock). They withdrew the motion less than a week after filing it, but still, what the fuck Penn?
I've heard Penn called "the most LGBTQ-friendly Law School" but I haven't found any proof that they are better than, say, Michigan- especially when you focus specifically on trans people. Anyone who is trans themselves or has trans loved ones can tell you that when institutions claim to support "LGBT rights", what they often mean is actually "LGB rights".
NYU:
They list unisex bathrooms in 3/7 law school buildings, not including the library.
They gave mostly one-word answers to the questions, but go into detail about three LGBTQ-related courses and one civil rights clinic.
Campus is right next to the Village, so that would be convenient. You could even have lunch at the Stonewall Inn- google says it’s a six minute walk from the law school.
Columbia:
They claim to have unisex bathrooms, but unlike the other schools, do not provide a bathroom map. I'm sure they exist, but it's not that helpful if we need to go on a toilet treasure hunt to find them. edit: A Columbia student commented with a bathroom map! They say it's out of date, but there is at least one unisex bathroom in the main law building, and more throughout campus.
They give a huge list of classes when about LGBTQ-focused coursework but many seem only tangentially related, such as the Seminar in Mass Incarceration. Maybe it has a lecture on trans people being forced into the wrong prisons? I’m just speculating on that one.
They have a gender focused law-journal, a Sexuality and Gender Law Clinic, and an entire Center for Gender and Sexuality Law. I found one post from someone saying that Columbia “sometimes treat[s] LGBTQ students like garbage” but with no further explanation.
Chicago:
The University has unisex bathrooms, but I was unable to check how many, or where they were located. There's a broken link to a unisex bathroom map on their Outlaw chapter's website, so hopefully it will be re-uploaded soon.
Their survey answers include a mission statement from their Outlaw chapter in the student organization section, but it leaves out any mention of trans people. They don't even say "LGBT", instead preferring to write out "gays and lesbians" each time. I checked the school website to see if this description had been updated in the two years since the survey was published, and it had not. If their chapter of Outlaw sees fit to leave trans people out of their mission statement, I can't help but wonder what sort of reception trans people get at Chi.
They state that trans people are "welcome at the Law School and both the University", but then end that same paragraph with the statement that "The Stonewall Scholarship is available for students who demonstrate commitment to the advancement of legal rights for gays and lesbians," leaving out trans students again. It's especially glaring considering that the scholarship is named after a riot started by trans women.
Harvard:
Provides a link to their unisex bathroom map right in the survey responses- the only school to do so. They have them in most but not all buildings making up the law school. Harvard started a LGBTQ civil rights clinic in 2019, and they link to several classes related to LGBTQ issues as well.
They say they have LGBTQ profs, but don’t give any examples.
Stanford:
Their website says that “The university is aiming to have gender-inclusive single-occupancy restrooms in all buildings by 2020”, but doesn’t say whether they were successful or not, and the bathroom map is illegibly small. At minimum, the library and faculty building have unisex bathrooms.
The University says it has “many prominent LGBT scholars” and a “variety of academic classes” but doesn’t go into specifics.
They also have a huge document on their website about being trans at Stanford. It’s not specific to the law school but it has a lot of really useful information.
Yale:
Gave mostly one-word or answers to the questions, aside from a copy-paste of their non-discrimination policy and a link to their course catalog. They link to Yale Outlaw as well, but it requires a Yale login to access.
I also found some news articles about Yale suing the state of Connecticut in order to make more of their bathrooms gender-inclusive: apparently building code regulations were stopping them? They won on appeal in the state Superior Court and converted a bunch of stalls in the main law building. The fact that they were willing to take Connecticut to court in order support their trans and nonbinary students is very encouraging.
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TLDR; Dean Z says trans rights, Northwestern doesn’t mind if you wet yourself, and Penn claimed to have the legal right to discriminate against its trans employees for about a week in 2019.
If anyone has a correction or something to add, I'd love to hear it in the comments! I'm especially interested in anecdotal info about the social culture at Cornell, UVA, Michigan, and Duke since they are in smaller cities. Can a gay trans guy get a date in Durham? The people want to know.
I’m open to PMs as well if current students would rather have me edit it into the post for added anonymity.
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